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Mitch McConnell's Brother-in-Law One of the Masterminds of Trump-Russia

Jim Breyer, Mitch McConnell's brother-in-law, Facilitates Russia’s Takeover of Facebook through Yuri Milner
In 2005 Jim Breyer, a partner at Accel Partners, invested $1 million of his own money into Facebook and gained a seat on the board (1).
In Feb 2009 Jim Breyer visited Russia with a number of other Silicone Valley investors. While there, Yuri Milner, a Russian tech entrepreneur who founded DST with close ties to the Kremlin, hosted a dinner to cap the entire event (2). As one Moscow source put it:
DST has the backing of the big boys at the top in the Kremlin, which is why it will go from strength to strength (5)
Milner found out Breyer liked Impressionist art and took him to Russian’s Hermitage Museum to view Matisse paintings otherwise closed off to the public. Three months later Yuri Milner’s DST invested into Facebook at a bloated value. (2)
Mr Milner dismissed suggestions that at a valuation of $10bn he overpaid for his stake in Facebook, especially given that the social networking site has yet to prove it has turned to profit. (3)
it’s seen as a desperate and rather vulgar deal on the one hand—Milner buying a small stake in Facebook, valuing the entire company at $10 billion—and, on the other, Facebook debasing itself by taking Russian money. Russian money! In fact, it seems rather like a desperate deal for both parties (in the midst of the banking crisis, Facebook has only two other bidders for this round—and none from the top VC tier) (4)
By the end of 2009, DST would own 10% of Facebook. Later revealed by the Paradise Papers, DST’s investments into Facebook were financed by the Russian government through state-owned Gazprom. That’s right, in 2009 Russia owned 10% of Facebook. (6)
Soon after, the two continued to work together on other investments. Breyer introduced Milner to Groupon, and Milner helped Breyer’s Accel invest into Spotify (7). In 2010 an Accel representative joined a gaggle of Silicon Valley investors to Russia and signed a letter promising to invest into the country (8).
  1. http://fortune.com/2011/01/11/timeline-where-facebook-got-its-funding/
  2. http://fortune.com/2010/10/04/facebooks-friend-in-russia/
  3. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/7753692/Facebook-is-just-the-first-step-say-Russians.html
  4. https://www.wired.com/2011/10/mf_milne
  5. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/jan/04/facebook-dst-goldman-sachs
  6. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/nov/05/russia-funded-facebook-twitter-investments-kushner-investor
  7. https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/dst-global-hoping-to-grow-across-asia-puts-down-roots/
  8. http://www.ambarclub.org/executive-education/
Jim Breyer and Rupert Murdoch
Then in Nov 2010 Jim Breyer invested into Artsy.net, run by Rupert Murdoch’s then-wife, Wendi Deng, and Russia oligarch Roman Abramovich’s then-wife, Dasha Zhukova. Jared Kushner’s brother, Josh, also invested in the fledgling company (1).
At the time Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation had a joint venture with the Russian mob-linked oligarch Boris Berezovsky, called LogoVaz News Corporation, that invested in Russian media (4). It was Berezovsky’s protege close to Putin, Roman Abramovich, who tied Berezovsky to the mob.
According to the Mirror Online, Abramovich paid Berezovsky tens, and even hundreds, of millions every year for "krysha", or mafia protection. (5)
In June 2011, Rupert Murdoch ended his foray into social media by selling Myspace to Justin Timberlake (2) and elected Jim Breyer to the board of News Corp (3).
  1. https://www.businessinsider.com/what-is-cadre-and-how-to-invest-in-its-real-estate-deals-2016-6
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myspace
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/19990428071733/http://www.newscorp.com:80/
  4. https://www.bloomberg.com/profiles/companies/156126Z:RU-logovaz-news-corp
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Abramovich
Jim Breyer invests in Wickr with Erik Prince
In 2012 Breyer invested in a encrypted messenger app, Wickr. Other investors include Gilman Louie and Erik Prince. To understand the connection, we need to go back to 1987. Breyer, newly hired to Accel Partners, made his first investment with Louie’s video game company that owned the rights to the Soviet Union’s first video game export, Tetris (1).
Louie went off to become the founding CEO of the CIA-backed In-Q-Tel which invested in Palantir. Palantir’s founder, Peter Thiel, sat on the board of Facebook with Breyer (2)(3). On the board of In-Q-Tel is Buzzy Krongard (7), the man who helped Erik Prince’s Blackwater receive their first CIA contract, who also joined the board of Blackwater in 2007 (6).
Around that same time, 2012-2013, Prince met Vincent Tchenguiz, founder of Cambridge Analytica's parent company, SCL (8), and was introduced to Cyrus Behbehani of Glencore, one of the purchasers of Rosneft stock detailed in the Steele Dossier (9). Cyrus Behbehani sat on the board of RusAl with Christophe Charlier, who is also Chairman of the board at Renaissance Capital (10), an early investor of DST (11).
  1. https://wickr.com/wickr-raises-30m-series-b-led-by-jim-breye
  2. https://www.sfgate.com/politics/article/CIA-Asks-Silicon-Valley-s-Help-Executive-to-2904775.php
  3. https://www.iqt.org/palantir-technologies/
  4. https://www.politico.com/story/2016/08/palantir-defense-contracts-lobbyists-226969
  5. https://feraljundi.com/tag/reflex-responses-management-consultancy-llc/
  6. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/us/17brothers.html
  7. https://www.marketscreener.com/business-leaders/A-Krongard-006WHL-E/biography/
  8. https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/revealed-erik-prince-had-business-ties-with-netanyahus-disgraced-chief-of-staff-1.5627887
  9. https://medium.com/@wsiegelman/a-fresh-look-at-erik-princes-house-intelligence-committee-testimony-and-emails-with-christophe-6603f06c6568
  10. https://medium.com/@wsiegelman/a-fresh-look-at-erik-princes-house-intelligence-committee-testimony-and-emails-with-christophe-6603f06c6568
  11. https://www.vccircle.com/all-you-wanted-know-about-digital-sky-technologies/
Jim Breyer and Yuri Milner invest in Prismatic
That same year, 2012, Jim Breyer invested in Prismatic, a news aggregate app, with Yuri Milner.
Prismatic’s technology works by crawling Facebook, Twitter and the web (“anything with a URL”) to find news stories. It then uses machine learning to categorize them by Topic and Publication. Prismatic users follow these Topics and Publications, as well as Individuals and the algorithm then uses these preferences and user-activity signals to present a relevant Newsfeed. (1)
Sounds like the beginning of what could be a propaganda dissemination tool. That goes in-line with Yuri Milner’s vision of Social Media. Milner’s theory:
“Zuckerberg’s Law”: Every 12 to 18 months the amount of information being shared between people on the web doubles... Over time people will bypass more general websites such as Google in favor of sites built atop social networks where they can rely on friends’ opinions to figure out where to get the best fall handbag, how to change a smoke detector, or whether to vacation in Istanbul or Rome. “You will pick your network, and the network will filter everything for you,” Milner explained. (2)
So how does Milner intend to utilize the data gathered through social media? Let’s see what Milner did to Russia’s top social media site, VK:
In January 2014, Durov sold his 12 percent stake to Ivan Tavrin, the CEO of major Russian mobile operator Megafon, whose second-largest shareholder is Alisher Usmanov, one of Russia’s most powerful oligarchs, a man who has long been lobbying to take over VK.
Then, in April 2014, Durov stated he had sold his stake in the company and became a citizen of St Kitts and Nevis back in February after "coming under increasing pressure" from the Russian Federal Security Service to hand over personal details of users who were members of a VK group dedicated to the Euromaidan protest movement in Ukraine. (3)
The Euromaidan protest ousted the Russian-backed president of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, whom Paul Manafort had worked to install. (4)
  1. https://techcrunch.com/2012/12/05/prismatic/
  2. http://fortune.com/2010/10/04/facebooks-friend-in-russia/
  3. https://cointelegraph.com/news/what-ban-russias-vkcom-is-mining-bitcoin
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Yanukovych
Facebook talks US Elections with Russia
In Oct 2012 Zuckerberg traveled to Moscow and met Dmitry Medvedev where they had a very interesting conversation:
Mr. Zuckerberg and Mr. Medvedev talked about Facebook’s role in politics, though only jokingly in reference to its importance in the American presidential campaign, according to Mr. Medvedev’s press office. (1)
While there he also visited Victor Vekselberg's Skolkovo, who’s currently under investigation by Mueller for donations to Trump (2).
As Obama’s effort to reboot diplomatic relations [with Russia] sputtered, federal officials began raising alarms about the Skolkovo Foundation’s ties to Putin.
“The foundation may be a means for the Russian government to access our nation’s sensitive or classified research, development facilities and dual-use technologies” (3)
And took time to teach Russian's how to hack Facebook friend data, the same hack used by Cambridge Analytica, Donald Trump’s campaign data firm.
In a 2012 video, Facebook's Simon Cross shows the Moscow crowd how they can "get a ton of other information" on Facebook users and their friends. "We now have an access token, so now let's make the same request again and see what happens," Cross explains (YouTube). "We've got a little bit more data, but now we can start doing really interesting stuff. We can get my friends. We can get some more information about one of my friends. Here's Connor, who you'll meet later. Say 'hello,' Connor. He's waving. And we can also get a ton of other information as well." (4)
Facebook later hired the individual who hacked Facebook and sold the data to Cambridge Analytica (5).
A month after that visit, Putin propaganda mouth-piece Konstantin Rykov, claims he began helping with Trump’s presidential aspirations (6). Days later, Trump registered “Make America Great Again” (7). The following year, Russia's Troll Factory, the Internet Research Agency, was created as was Cambridge Analytica.
  1. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/02/technology/zuckerberg-meets-with-medvedev-in-key-market.html
  2. https://www.adweek.com/digital/zuckerberg-russia-skolkovo/
  3. https://apnews.com/5e533f93afae4a4fa5c2f7fe80ad72ac/Sanctioned-Russian-oligarch-linked-to-Cohen-has-vast-US-ties
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=heTPmGb6jdc&feature=youtu.be&t=11m54s
  5. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/ma18/facebook-cambridge-analytica-joseph-chancellor-gsr
  6. https://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/11/24/a-trumprussia-confession-in-plain-sight/
  7. https://trademarks.justia.com/857/83/make-america-great-85783371.html
Andrei Shleifer and Len Blavatnik
Len Blavatnik, a US-Russian oligarch currently under investigation by Mueller, graduated from Harvard in 1989 and quickly formed Renova-Invest with Viktor Vekselberg, another oligarch under Mueller’s investigation (7)(8). Since then Blavatnik has maintained close ties to the university.
In 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Andrei Shleifer led a consortium of Harvard professors to assist Russia’s vice-president, Antaoly Chubais, with the privatization of Russia’s state-run assets. Scandal broke when it was revealed Shleifer, through Blavatnik’s company and with Blavatnik’s guidance, invested in the very companies he worked to privatize. (6)
Years later, Shleifer continued to fund loans to Blavatnik for Russian ventures through his hedge fund, managed by his wife, Nancy Zimmerman (9), and created the Russian Recovery Fund which bought $230 million of Russian debt from Julian Robertson’s Tiger Management (10), who’s seed fun, Tiger Global, later invested in Milner’s DST.
Len Blavatnik and Viktor Vekselberg are major investors in Rusal (11).
Schleifer is still a professor at Harvard.
  1. http://harry-lewis.blogspot.com/2014/01/some-russian-money-flows-back-to-harvard.html
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Blavatnik#cite_note-Yenikeyeff-7
  3. https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/investigators-follow-flow-money-trump-wealthy-donors-russian/story?id=50100024
  4. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/01/20/the-billionaires-playlist
  5. https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/cafc/16-1718/16-1718-2017-03-14.html
  6. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-25/tangled-rusal-ownership-thwarts-easy-end-to-sanctions-quicktake
Breyer and Harvard
On April 2013, two months after Breyer was elected to the board of Harvard (1), Len Blavatnik, donated $50 million to the school (2) and joined the Board of Dean’s Advisors (3)(4) and Harvard’s Global Advisory Council (6) alongside Breyer. The next month Breyer announced plans to step down from the board of Facebook with an intention of focusing on his latest Harvard appointment (5).
In 2016 Len Blavatnik donated over $7 million to GOP candidates, including $2.5 million to Mitch McConnell himself (7).
  1. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/02/breyer_elected/
  2. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/04/blavatnik_accelerator_donation/
  3. https://www.accessindustries.com/about/academic-boards-committees/
  4. https://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/21/delivering-alpha-2017-jim-breyer.html
  5. https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2013/04/27/facebook-board-member-jim-breyer-stepping-down/
  6. http://docplayer.net/54127503-Harvard-global-advisory-council.html
  7. https://www.dallasnews.com/opinion/commentary/2017/08/03/tangled-web-connects-russian-oligarch-money-gop-campaigns
Breyer invests in Russian Companies
In 2014 Breyer’s Accel Partners invested in Russian hotel booking site, Ostrovok, along with Yuri Milner, Esther Dyson (1), Mark Pincus, and Peter Thiel (2).
Accel Partners also invested in Avito.ru in 2012 (3) and KupiVIP.ru in 2011 (4).
  1. https://techcrunch.com/2014/06/18/ostrovok-raises-new-12m-series-c-round-to-expand-outside-russia/
  2. http://idcee.org/participants/companies/ostrovok/
  3. http://www.ewdn.com/2012/05/02/avito-ru-secures-75-million-investment-from-accel-partners-and-baring-vostok/
  4. http://www.ewdn.com/2011/04/14/leading-private-shopping-club-kupivip-ru-completes-55-m-funding/
Jim Breyer, Blackstone Group, and Saudi Arabia
In 2011 Schwarzman was named to the board of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (2), headed by Kirill Dimitriev.
In June 2016, during Trump’s presidential campaign, Jim Breyer met with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin-Salman, or MBS (8). The next month Breyer joined the board of Blackstone Group (1) alongside Stephen Schwarzman and Jacob Rothschild (3). In the past Blackstone Group had loaned Kushner Companies a combined $400 million over multiple projects (7). In the 2018 election cycle, Schwzarman donated $5 million to the pro-McConnell superPAC, Senate Majority PAC (13).
Jacob’s brother, Nat, is business partners with both Oleg Deripaska (4), Rupert Murdoch, and Dick Cheney (5). Nat is also a major investor in Glencore, one of the purchasers of Rosneft stock detailed in the Steele Dossier (6), and RusAl.
In January 2017, Breyer’s business partner at Wickr, Erik Prince, was introduced to Dimitriev by MBS’s emissary, George Nader, and the Crown Prince of the UAE (10).
On October 22, 2018, three weeks after the murder of Jamal Khashoggi, when most American investors were spooked away from Saudi Arabia, Jim Breyer showed up at an MBS-hosted Saudi business summit alongside Kirill Dimitriev of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (9). That same day, MBS pledged $20 billion for Blackstone Group's new infrastructure fund (11) to fund Elaine Chao's $1.5 trillion infrastructure plan (12). Elaine Chao, Mitch McConnells wife and Jim Breyer's sister-in-law, is Trump's Secretary of Transportation.
  1. https://www.blackstone.com/media/press-releases/article/jim-breyer-to-join-blackstone-s-board-of-directors
  2. https://rdif.ru/Eng_fullNews/53/
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Rothschild,_4th_Baron_Rothschild
  4. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/conservative/3236166/Muddy-waters-over-Oleg-Deripaska-Nat-Rothschild-and-George-Osborne.html
  5. https://www.nationofchange.org/2017/01/15/cheney-rothschild-fox-news-murdoch-drill-oil-syria-violating-international-law/
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Philip_Rothschild
  7. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-05-26/the-kushners-the-saudis-and-blackstone-behind-the-recent-deals
  8. https://www.thetrustedinsight.com/investment-news/saudi-prince-mohammed-met-with-20-silicon-valley-innovators-in-tech-summit-20160628142/
  9. https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-moelis-saudi-arabia-20181023-story.html
  10. https://www.vox.com/2018/3/7/17088908/erik-prince-trump-russia-seychelles-mueller
  11. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-22/how-blackstone-landed-20-billion-from-saudis-for-infrastructure
  12. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-22/how-blackstone-landed-20-billion-from-saudis-for-infrastructure
  13. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2018/07/20/big-money-is-flowing-into-the-2018-fight-for-the-senate/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.f59ac6f2ebe5
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COS Token Swap Terms and Conditions

COS Token Swap Terms and Conditions
1. Principles
1.1 The parties in this Token Swap Agreement are COSS.IO and the User.
1.2 By accepting the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token, the User understands and accepts that the User participates in the Token Swap for the development of the COSS.IO Project.
1.3 The User understands and accepts that although COSS.IO is assigned to this task and will make reasonable efforts to continue to develop the COSS.IO Project/Platform, it is possible that such development may fail and the User’s COS tokens become useless and/or valueless due to technical, commercial, regulatory or any other reasons (see also section regarding Risks).
1.4 The User furthermore understands and accepts that - as the creation, as well as the assignment of the execution of COS Tokens are smart contract based - the terms and conditions applicable thereon are set forth in the Smart Contract System Code, existing on the Ethereum blockchain at the address published before the start of the Token Swap Period on: https://coss.io/. To the extent these terms contained herein or in any other document or communication contradict those set forth in the Smart Contract System, the terms of the Smart Contract System prevail. Furthermore, neither this document nor any other document or communication may modify or add any additional obligations to COSS.IO and/or publisher of these terms and/or developer of the Smart Contract System and/or any other person.
1.5 By accepting the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token, the User expressly agrees that all of the terms and conditions set forth in Smart Contract System Code existing on the Ethereum blockchain (at the addresses set forth on: https://coss.io/) and in this document (together the “Terms”), are incorporated herein. The User further confirms to have carefully reviewed the Smart Contract System Code, its functions and these terms and conditions set forth in this document and to fully understand the risks and costs of participating in the Token Swap.
1.6 This document does not constitute a prospectus of any sort, is not a solicitation for investment and does not pertain in any way to an initial public offering or a share/equity offering and does not pertain in any way to an offering of securities in any jurisdiction.
By accepting the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token, no form of partnership, joint venture or any similar relationship between the Users and C.O.S.S. Pte. Ltd. and/or other individuals or entities involved with the deployment of the Smart Contract System and the setting up/running of COSS.IO Project/Platform is created.
1.7 The Token Swap will not involve any fiat currencies and will strictly be done in cryptocurrencies.
2. COS Swap Tokens Creation and Functionalities
2.1 The User understands that COS Tokens do not represent or constitute any ownership right or stake, share or security or equivalent rights nor any direct right to receive future revenues, shares or any other form of participation, governance and/or right in or relating to COSS.IO. The User has full ownership of the COS Tokens in his/her wallet.
3. Swap Rate Exchange
3.1 The amount that will be exchanged are as follows:
3.1.1 COS Token for every 1 COSS Token; and
3.1.2 COS Token for every 10 LALA Tokens.
4. No Refund
4.1. The User understands and accepts that all Token Swaps are final and may not be reversed. By participating in the Token Swap, the User acknowledges that he has no right to request a refund for the exchange that he takes part in.
5. User to Ensure to use the original Smart Contracts
5.1. Only the Smart Contract(s) existing at the addresses set forth will exchange COSS/LALA Tokens for COS Tokens. Access to this Smart Contract will be available on https://coss.io/ on the 25th of June 2019. To the extent that any third-party website, service and/or smart contract offers COS Tokens and/or facilitates the allocation or transfer of COS Tokens in any way up, such third-party websites or services are, unless explicitly mentioned on https://coss.io/, not authorized by C.O.S.S. Pte. Ltd. and have no relationship in any way with COSS.IO Project/Platform.
6. Representation and Warranties of User
6.1. By accepting the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token, the User represents and warrants that:
6.1.1. The User is not a citizen or resident of a country, whose legislation is in conflict with the present Token Swap Allocation and/or the COSS.IO Project/Platform in general;
6.1.2. The User has a deep understanding of the functionality, usage, storage, transmission mechanisms and intricacies associated with cryptographic tokens, like bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH), and blockchain-based software systems;
6.1.3. The User understands and accepts that the consensus mechanism securing the Ethereum Network may change in the future, and the stakeholders who are in control of the Network may also change as a result.
6.1.4. The User has carefully reviewed the code of the Smart Contract System located on the Ethereum blockchain at the addresses set forth at paragraph 1.6 and fully understands and accepts the functions implemented therein;
6.1.5. The User is legally permitted to participate in the Token Swap in the User’s jurisdiction;
6.1.6. The User will exchange COSS/LALA Tokens from a wallet respectively within a wallet service provider that technically supports the COS Tokens. The User understands and accepts, that failure to ensure this may result in the User not gaining access to his COS Tokens;
6.1.7. The User is legally permitted to receive software and participate in the Token Swap for the continued development of the COSS.IO Project/Platform;
6.1.8. The User is of a legal age to legally exchange COS Tokens;
6.1.9. The User will take sole responsibility for any restrictions and risks associated with the exchange of COS Tokens by the Smart Contract System as set forth below;
6.1.10. The User is not participating in the Token Swap for the purpose of speculative investment;
6.1.11. The User is not participating in the Token Swap for any illegal purposes;
6.1.12. The User is participating in the Token Swap primarily to support the continued development, testing, deployment and operation of the COSS.IO Project/Platform, being aware of the commercial risks associated with the COSS.IO Project/Platform;
6.1.13. The User waives the right to participate in a class action lawsuit and/or classwide arbitration against C.O.S.S. Pte. Ltd. and/or any individuals involved in the creation of COS Tokens;
6.1.14. The User understands the exchange of COS Tokens does not involve the purchase of securities as defined by relevant and applicable legislation and law or any equivalent in any existing or future public or private company, corporation or other entity in any jurisdiction;
6.1.15. The User understands that accepting the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token, the creation of COS Tokens and the development of the COSS.IO Project/Platform carries significant financial, regulatory and reputational risks as further set forth in these Terms;
6.1.16. The User understands and expressly accepts that there is no warranty and/or representations whatsoever on COS Tokens, the Smart Contract System and/or the success of the COSS.IO Project/Platform, expressed or implied, to the extent permitted by law, and that the Smart Contract System is used and COS Tokens are exchanged at the sole risk of the User on an “as is” and “under development” basis and without, to the extent permitted by law, any warranties of any kind, including, but not limited to, warranties of title or implied warranties, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose;
6.1.17. The User understands that the User has no right against any other party to request any refund of the COSS/LALA Tokens, which are exchanged for the COS Tokens under any circumstance;
6.1.18. The User understands that with regard to COS Tokens, no market liquidity can be guaranteed and the value of COS Tokens over time may experience extreme volatility or depreciate in full;
6.1.19. The User understands that the User bears the sole responsibility to determine if the User’s participation in the Token Swap may have tax implications for him. The User agrees not to hold any third party (including developers, auditors, contractors and/or founders) liable for any tax liability associated with or arising from the creation, ownership or use of COS Tokens and/or any other action or transaction related to the COSS.IO Project/Platform; and
6.1.20. As part of the Token Swap process the User will use his/her own account (address) on the Ethereum network, with a private key associated to this address and password. The password is used to encrypt the User’s private key. The User understands that the User must keep his password and private key safe and that the User may not share them with anybody. The User further understands that if his private key and/or password is lost or stolen, the User will not be able to generate a new password or recover his private key, and if the User also loses his private keys and password, the COS Tokens associated with the User's account (address) will be unrecoverable and will be permanently lost. Furthermore, the User understands that there is no recovery mechanism for lost keys and passwords, so no one will be able to help the User retrieve or reconstruct a lost password and private keys and provide the User with access to any lost COS Tokens.
7. COSS.IO Project/Platform Execution
7.1. The User understands and accepts that the User does not have any expectation of influence over governance and/or management of the COSS.IO Project/Platform.
7.2. The User understands and accepts that the COSS.IO Project/Platform may need to go through continued development works. The User understands and accepts that as part of the continued development, an upgrade of the COS Tokens may be required (hard-fork) and that, if the User decides not to participate in such upgrade, he may no longer use his COS Tokens and that non upgraded COS Tokens may lose their functionality in full.
8. Audit of the Smart Contract System
8.1. The Smart Contract System has been, on a reasonable effort basis, audited and approved by technical experts. Technical experts have confirmed that the Smart Contract System has, with regard to both accuracy and security, been programmed according to the current state of the art.
8.2. However, the User understands and accepts that smart contract technology is still in an early development stage and its application is of experimental nature, which carries significant operational, technological, financial, regulatory and reputational risks. Accordingly, while the audit conducted raises the level of security and accuracy, the User understands and accepts that the audit does not amount to any form of warranty, including direct or indirect warranties that the Smart Contract System and the COS Tokens are fit for a particular purpose and/or do not contain any weaknesses, vulnerabilities and/or bugs which could cause, inter alia, the complete loss of COS Tokens.
9. Risks
9.1. The User understands and accepts the risks in connection with accepting the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token. The User shall not hold COSS.IO and any other third party liable in the event of any of the following risks occurring. In particular, the User understands the inherent risks listed hereinafter in addition to any other risks:
9.1.1. Risk of software weaknesses: The User understands and accepts that the Smart Contract System concept, the underlying software application and software platform (i.e. the Ethereum blockchain) is still in an early development stage and unproven. Accordingly, there is no warranty that the process for creating COS Tokens will be uninterrupted or error-free and that there is an inherent risk that the software could contain weaknesses, vulnerabilities and/or bugs causing, inter alia, the complete loss of COS Tokens.
9.1.2. Regulatory Risk: The User understands and accepts that the blockchain technology allows new forms of interaction and that it is possible that certain jurisdictions will apply existing regulations on, or introduce new regulations addressing, blockchain technology based applications, which may be contrary to the current setup of the Smart Contract System and which may, inter alia, result in substantial modifications of the Smart Contract System and/or the COSS.IO Project/Project, including its termination and the loss of COS Tokens for the User.
9.1.3. Risk of abandonment/lack of success: The User understands and accepts that the token swap of the User’s existing COSS/LALA Tokens in exchange for the COS Token and the continued development of the COSS.IO Project/Platform may be abandoned for a number of reasons, including lack of interest from the public, lack of funding, lack of commercial success or prospects (e.g. caused by competing projects). The User therefore understands that there is no assurance that, even if the COSS.IO Project/Platform is partially or fully developed and launched, the User will receive any benefits through the COS Tokens held by him.
9.1.4. Risk associated with other applications: The User understands and accepts that the COSS.IO Project/Platform may give rise to other alternative projects, promoted by unaffiliated third parties, under which COS Tokens will have no intrinsic value.
9.1.5. Risk of loss of private key: COS Tokens can only be accessed by using an Ethereum wallet with a combination of User’s account information (address), private key and password. The private key is encrypted with a password. The User understands and accepts that if his private key file or password respectively gets lost or stolen, the obtained COS Tokens associated with the User’s account (address) or password will be unrecoverable and will be permanently lost.
9.1.6. Risk of theft: The User understands and accepts that the Smart Contract System concept, the underlying software application and software platform (i.e. the Ethereum blockchain) may be exposed to attacks by hackers or other individuals that could result in theft or loss of COS Tokens.
9.1.7. Risk of Ethereum mining attacks: The User understands and accepts that, as with other cryptocurrencies, the blockchain used for the Smart Contract System is susceptible to mining attacks, including but not limited to double-spend attacks, majority mining power attacks, "selfish-mining" attacks, and race condition attacks. Any successful attack presents a risk to the Smart Contract System, expected proper execution and sequencing of COS Tokens transactions, and expected proper execution and sequencing of contract computations.
10. COSS.IO Project/Platform Execution
10.1. To the maximum extent permitted by all applicable laws, regulations and rules and except as otherwise provided in these Terms, COSS.IO hereby expressly disclaims its liability and shall in no case be liable to the User or any person for the following:
10.1.1. the COS Tokens being used for any purpose in connection with money laundering, terrorism financing or any other acts in breach or contravention of any applicable law, regulation or rule;
10.1.2. any cancellation or withdrawal from this Token Swap;
10.1.3. any failure or delay in the delivery and receipt of COS Tokens by the User
10.1.4. any failure, malfunction, breakdown of, or disruption to the operation of COSS.IO, COSS.IO Project/Platform, COSS website and COS Tokens, due to occurrences of virus, bug, hacks, cyber-attacks, distributed denials of service, errors, vulnerabilities, defects, flaws in programming or source code or otherwise, regardless of when such failure, malfunction, breakdown, or disruption occurs;
10.1.5. any failure or unfitness of COS Tokens for any specific purpose;
10.1.6. failure to disclose information relating to the progress of the Token Swap;
10.1.7. failure or delay in the availability of COS Tokens for trading;
10.1.8. any rejection of trading of COS Tokens;
10.1.9. any prohibition, restriction or regulation by any government or regulatory authority in any jurisdiction of the operation, functionality, usage, storage, transmission mechanisms, transferability or tradability or other material characteristics of COS Tokens;
10.1.10. occurrences of natural disasters, acts of God or other events beyond the control of COSS.IO that affect the businesses and/or operations of COSS.IO; and
10.1.11. any risks associated with COSS.IO, COSS.IO Project/Platform, COSS website and COS Tokens.
11. Limitation of Liability and Indemnification
11.1. To the maximum extent permitted by the applicable laws, regulations and rules:
11.1.1. COSS.IO shall not be liable for any loss arising out of or in connection with the purchase, use, receipt or holding of COS Tokens by the User;
11.1.2. In any case, the aggregate liability of COSS.IO, arising out of or in connection with the exchange, use, receipt or holding of COS Tokens by the User shall be limited to the amount exchanged by the User for his/her exchange hereunder; and
11.1.3. To the maximum extent permitted by the applicable laws, regulations and rules, the User shall indemnify, defend, and hold COSS.IO harmless from and against any and all claims, damages, losses, suits, actions, demands, proceedings, expenses, and/or liabilities filed/incurred by any third party against COSS.IO arising out of a breach of any of these Terms herein.
12. No Assignment
12.1. Subject to these Terms, only the User and no other person shall have the right to any claim against COSS.IO in connection with the User’s exchange hereunder. The User shall not assign, trade or transfer his/her right to any such claim. Any such assignment or transfer shall not impose any obligation or liability on COSS.IO to the assignee or transferee.
13. Right to Amend
13.1. COSS.IO may revise these Terms from time to time in any circumstances, including but not limited to:
13.1.1. changes in the type of cryptocurrency used for this Token Swap;
13.1.2. changes in the value of the COS Tokens;
13.1.3. changes in the Governing Law and Jurisdiction;
13.1.4. any other changes that may be required from time to time following changes to our business practices and further or required developments to the COSS.IO Project/Platform.
14. No Waiver
14.1. Any failure of COSS.IO to enforce or to assert these Terms shall not be construed as a waiver of the right of COSS.IO to enforce these Terms against the User.
15. Governing Law and Jurisdiction
15.1. These Terms shall be governed by the laws of the Republic of Singapore, and COSS.IO and the User agree to be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the Republic of Singapore in relation to any dispute arising out of or in connection with these Terms.
16. Third Party Websites or Platforms
16.1. COSS.IO may provide certain hyperlinks to third party websites, and the inclusion of any hyperlinks or any advertisement of any third party on the COSS website or other platforms does not imply endorsement by COSS.IO of their websites, products or business practices. If the User accesses and uses any third party websites, products, services, platforms and/or business, the User does that solely at his/her own risk for which COSS.IO will bear no liability.
17. Contracts (Right of Third Parties) Act
17.1. The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act (Chapter 53B) of Republic of Singapore shall not under any circumstances apply to these Terms and any person who is not a party to this agreement shall not enforce these Terms.
18. Severance
18.1. If any of these Terms is rendered void, illegal or unenforceable by any legislation to which it is subject, it shall be rendered void, illegal or unenforceable to that extent and no further and, the rest of these Terms shall continue to be valid and in full force and effect.
18.2. The illegality, invalidity or unenforceability of any of these Terms under the law of any jurisdiction shall not affect its legality, validity or enforceability under the law of any other jurisdiction nor the legality, validity or enforceability of any other provision.
19. Intellectual Property Rights
19.1. These Terms shall not entitle the User to any intellectual property rights, including the rights in relation to the use, for any purpose, of any information, image, user interface, logos, trademarks, trade names, Internet domain names or copyright in connection with the COSS Website, the Token Swap and the COS Tokens.
20. Entire Agreement
20.1. These Terms contain the entire agreement between COSS.IO and the User and supersedes all prior agreements, understandings and/or arrangements in relation to the Token Swap.
21. REMEMBER
21.1. Your tokens, transactions, wallets and passwords are your responsibility. Protect your keys and passwords, they are unrecoverable. If you lose them someone else may get access to your tokens.
submitted by sandworm87 to CossIO [link] [comments]

CME Group Announces Launch of Bitcoin Futures

Tue Oct 31 2017
CHICAGO, Oct. 31, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- CME Group, the world's leading and most diverse derivatives marketplace, today announced it intends to launch bitcoin futures in the fourth quarter of 2017, pending all relevant regulatory review periods.
The new contract will be cash-settled, based on the CME CF Bitcoin Reference Rate (BRR) which serves as a once-a-day reference rate of the U.S. dollar price of bitcoin. Bitcoin futures will be listed on and subject to the rules of CME.
"Given increasing client interest in the evolving cryptocurrency markets, we have decided to introduce a bitcoin futures contract," said Terry Duffy, CME Group Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. "As the world's largest regulated FX marketplace, CME Group is the natural home for this new vehicle that will provide investors with transparency, price discovery and risk transfer capabilities."
Since November 2016, CME Group and Crypto Facilities Ltd. have calculated and published the BRR, which aggregates the trade flow of major bitcoin spot exchanges during a calculation window into the U.S. Dollar price of one bitcoin as of 4:00 p.m. London time. The BRR is designed around the IOSCO Principles for Financial Benchmarks. Bitstamp, GDAX, itBit and Kraken are the constituent exchanges that currently contribute the pricing data for calculating the BRR.
"We are excited to work with CME Group on this product and see the BRR used as the settlement mechanism of this important product," said Dr.Timo Schlaefer, CEO of Crypto Facilities. "The BRR has proven to reliably and transparently reflect global bitcoin-dollar trading and has become the price reference of choice for financial institutions, trading firms and data providers worldwide."
CME Group and Crypto Facilities Ltd. also publish the CME CF Bitcoin Real Time Index (BRTI) to provide price transparency to the spot bitcoin market. The BRTI combines global demand to buy and sell bitcoin into a consolidated order book and reflects the fair, instantaneous U.S. dollar price of bitcoin in a spot price. The BRTI is published in real time and is suitable for marking portfolios, executing intra-day bitcoin transactions and risk management.
Cryptocurrency market capitalization has grown in recent years to $172 billion, with bitcoin representing more than 54 percent of that total, or $94 billion. The bitcoin spot market has also grown to trade roughly $1.5 billion in notional value each day.
For more information on this product, please visit cmegroup.com/bitcoinfutures.
As the world's leading and most diverse derivatives marketplace, CME Group (www.cmegroup.com) is where the world comes to manage risk. Through its exchanges, CME Group offers the widest range of global benchmark products across all major asset classes, including futures and options based on interest rates, equity indexes, foreign exchange,energy, agricultural products and metals. CME Group provides electronic trading globally on its CME Globex platform. The company also offers clearing and settlement services across asset classes for exchange-traded and over-the-counter derivatives through CME Clearing. CME Group's products and services ensure that businesses around the world can effectively manage risk and achieve growth.
CME Group, the Globe Logo, CME, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, CME Direct and Globex are registered trademarks of Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
CME-G
http://www.cmegroup.com/media-room/press-releases/2017/10/31/cme_group_announceslaunchofbitcoinfutures.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social_post&utm_campaign=bitcoin&utm_content=cmegroup&utm_source=TWITTER&utm_medium=social_post&utm_content=20171031&utm_campaign=bitcoin#BTC
www.cmegroup.com/trading/cf-bitcoin-reference-rate.html?utm_source=cmegroup&utm_medium=friendly&utm_campaign=bitcoin&redirect=/bitcoin
submitted by Chris_Stewart_5 to investing [link] [comments]

Safex FAQ #1 General Questions

FAQ #1 General Questions
FAQ #2 The Wallet
FAQ #3 Timeframes, Chille Dividends, Dividend Calculator:
FAQ #4 The Marketplace, Trade Volumes, Market Cap, Partnerships/Publicity, Miscellaneous
Hi all, due to the large number of repeated questions here, on the slack, and on the forum, I thought I would try to compile a rough FAQ. Other topics to come. Please note that I am not in any way officially associated with Safex, apart from being a coin hodler. My answers here are as TL;DR and ELI15 as I could manage and may lack some detail. Please also note that I asked Dan to look over this FAQ before posting to ensure accuracy of information.
General:
1. What is Safex, what is Chille?
In short they are two crypto-coins. Safex is currently available and effectively gives you “shares” in the company. Assuming no name changes, Chille will be the name for the new anonymous decentralised blockchain that is being developed. On top of this blockchain the team will build the Safex Marketplace where Chille coin (a new crypto currency) will be used to buy and sell.
2. What is the marketplace?
A new anonymous way to buy and sell things using crypto. Please see the marketplace subheading for more info.
3. What is the total number of Safex and Chille coins?
Safex: (231 ) -1 =2,147,483,647 (two billion, one hundred and fourty seven million…)
4. Who are the developers?
Please see https://safex.io/ “Our Crew” heading.
edit 6th Oct 2017: List of what people are currently working on:
Dan: Chille, Wallet updates, Website, Whitepaper
Pavle: Wallet updates, Website
Marija: Website
Nikola: Website, Wallet updates
Milan: Marketing and planning
Ivana: Whitepaper
5. What makes Safex/Chille different to other coins?
There is a lot to say here, but for starters, I suggest reading this post
Another big stand-out aspect of Safex is that they have employed a full time economist to help design the economics of the Chille blockchain and the marketplace.
6. Is there a whitepaper?
This is currently being written and combines Chille, Safex, and economics and how they intertwine. We will know much more about the economic model once this is released. This is expected to be released in October.
EDIT: 18th Oct 2017
In order to maintain the integrity of the project and avoid "copy-cats", the decision has been made to delay the release of the whitepaper until Chille alpha is released. This is expected to be in Dec 2017
7. Where can I buy Safex? Any plans for new exchanges?
From exchanges Bittrex or Cryptopia, or directly from the https://safex.io website (If you have some bitcoin already). There seem to be plans for Safex to trade on some more exchanges, and there is hope that the upcoming “upbit” Korean exchange will include Safex.
8. Where can I find information/news about what is going on?
Dan provides weekly updates on the forum https://safe.exchange You can also find information on the slack https://safex.herokuapp.com/ Or Reddit page https://www.reddit.com/safex
9. Does Dan also work for Dascoin?
No, Dan worked for Dascoin Prior to Jan 2017 when he stepped back and begin work on Safex full time.
10. The Chille logo looks like Coca Cola. Will this be a problem? Why is the Safex webpage a pirate ship?
No, Dan has already stated that he has obtained a US trademark on the Chille logo. The ship is a “merchant ship and Safex is ushering in the Digital Merchant Economy”.
11. Will there be a phone app?
Yes, planned to be developed around Chille alpha time (see Roadmap for that time).
12. Where can I buy a Safex t-shirt?
We all want to know! To Be Advised…
submitted by znffal to safex [link] [comments]

PSA: AT&T spamming "malware infection advisories" to Bitcoin users

Beginning Friday, it seems AT&T is calling Bitcoin a "malware infection". I have received two emails so far, one each day - so it seems to be a recurring issue, not simply a one time thing. (To those unaware, port 8333 is Bitcoin.)
Furthermore, their RBL (email spam filter) is apparently run by incompetent people, since they have blacklisted my private email server (hosted on a dedicated server, not AT&T, with proper RDNS etc) which is used by nobody outside my immediate family and has never been used to send spam. Thus, I cannot even reply or complain to them about this.
Full message:
Malware infection advisory from AT&T Internet Services Security Center Bellsouth Member ID: *hidden*@att.net Luke Dashjr Primary Member ID: *hidden*@att.net Dear Luke Dashjr, AT&T has received information indicating that one or more devices using your Internet connection may be infected with malicious software. Internet traffic consistent with a malware infection (“unknown”) was observed on Apr 8, 2016 at 9:18 AM EDT from the IP address *hidden*. Our records indicate that this IP address was assigned to you at this time. Infected computers are often used as part of a zombie computer network (“botnet”). Botnets are networks of computers which have been infected with malware and placed under the control of a hacker or group of hackers. They are often used for attacks on websites, spamming, fraud, and distribution of additional malware. Because malware is designed to run in secret, an infected computer may display no obvious symptoms. To address this matter we ask that you take the following actions. If your computer(s) are managed by an Information Technology (IT) group at your place of work, please pass this information on to them. 1. If you use a wireless network, an infected computer may be using your Internet connection without your knowledge. Ensure that your wireless router is password-protected and using WPA or WPA2 encryption (use WEP only if WPA is not available). Check the connections to the router and ensure that you recognize all connected devices. 2. Ensure your firewall settings and anti-virus software are up-to-date, and install any necessary service packs or patches. Scan all systems for viruses and other malware. Additional tools and information: * Tools for removing rootkits, bots, and other crimeware: * Norton Power Eraser: https://security.symantec.com/nbrt/npe.aspx (Windows) * McAfee Rootkit Remover: http://www.mcafee.com/us/downloads/free-tools/rootkitremover.aspx (Windows) * Tools for general virus and malware removal: * Microsoft Safety & Security Center: http://www.microsoft.com/security/ (Windows) * Malwarebytes Anti-Malware: http://malwarebytes.org/ (Windows, Android) * Spybot +AV: http://www.safer-networking.org/ (Windows) * OS X Gatekeeper: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT5290 (OS X) * AT&T Malware and Network Security analysts gather weekly to give you the information that you need to know about the latest security news and trends. Visit AT&T ThreatTraq at http://techchannel.att.com/showpage.cfm?ThreatTraq Regards, AT&T Internet Services Security Center Incident details for *hidden* Type: unknown Source port: 39394 Destination IP: 5.xx.xx.205 Destination port: 8333 For security reasons, the destination IP is partially obscured. DISCLAIMER: The information above contains links to software by third-party vendors (hereafter, “the Software”). AT&T is not responsible for support or assistance for any of the Software. If you need support or assistance with any of the Software, please contact the Software's vendor directly. AT&T is unable to provide a warranty or guarantee, either expressed or implied, for any of the Software. You will be responsible for your own system software and system security and not hold AT&T, its partners, agents or affiliates liable for any costs or damages whatsoever (including, without limitation, damages to access system, hardware and/or software) to your computer as a result of installing or using any of the Software. You also understand that use of all hardware and/or software must comply with the Bellsouth Acceptable Use Policy. Important Note: This email contains links to various websites. You may copy and paste the URL(s) into your browser rather than clicking directly on the link. ©2005 - 2016 AT&T Intellectual Property. All rights reserved. AT&T, the AT&T logo and all other AT&T marks contained herein are trademarks of AT&T Intellectual Property and/or AT&T affiliated companies. All other marks contained herein are the property of their respective owners. Privacy Policy (Updated July 24, 2015) 
(I consider this PSA to be fair use under the Copyright Act.)
submitted by luke-jr to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

I am being harassed by Heineken's copyright trolls

when lightning went out in beta i created a little store with lightning payments only and promised myself that all the profits will be donated to charity ( being triggered by Roger's statements )
i had this product listed : https://i.imgur.com/LMrKXEE.png
and yesterday i received this email
From: Pointer Brand Protection Subject: Trademark infringement Message Body: To whom it may concern, I hereby state under penalty of perjury that I am authorized to act on behalf of Heineken Brouwerijen B.V. (“Heineken”). Heineken is the exclusive owner of several Intellectual Property Rights (“IPRs”) in different countries. Heineken holds many different kinds of IPRs, such as HEINEKEN wordmark (US trademark No. 956608 for 32 class), HEINEKEN logo figurative trademark (US trademark No. 1342529 for 16, 18, 21, 25, 26, 28, 34 classes), among others. Any exploitation (including but not limited to the use) of Heineken’s IPRs must be expressly authorized by my client. On lightningshop.eu (https://lightningshop.eu/product/bitcoin-heineken-t-shirt/), you are selling and offering for sale products or offering commercial services under the trademarks of Heineken, while these products and/or services were not manufactured and/or provided by or with permission of Heineken. I have a good faith belief that such use has not been authorized by Heineken, its agents or the law, and constitutes trademark infringement. Therefore, on behalf of Heineken I demand that you cease and desist all infringements of Heineken’s IPRs and permanently take down the infringing webpages within 2 days after receiving this letter. In case you do not comply with these demands within the above deadline, Heineken will take further legal action. The information contained in this letter is accurate and shall not affect in any way, the rights, remedies and/or defenses my client has, had, or may have for acting in this matter. Sincerely, On behalf of Heineken Brouwerijen B.V. Pointer Brand Protection & Research JM Laurijssen Zekeringstraat 17A, 1014BM, Amsterdam | Phone: +31 (0)20 30 319 35 | [email protected] -- This e-mail was sent from a contact form on Lightning Shop (http://lightningshop.eu)
the product was listed as "Bitcoin Heineken T-Shirt" i renamed it to "Bitcoin Green Circle T-Shirt" and replied them that i removed Heineken from product title and they replied today that i'm still under trademark infringement because the logo is a copy from heineken.
What should i do? Right now i removed the product because i don't want problems.
submitted by devilox to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Russian Facebook Conspiracy

https://old.reddit.com/RussiaLago/comments/a34y7i/mitch_mcconnells_brotherinlaw_one_of_the/ by u/Puffin_Fitness
Mitch McConnell's Brother-in-Law One of the Masterminds of Trump-Russia
2,158 points•149 comments•submitted 22 hours ago * by Puffin_Fitness to RussiaLago
Jim Breyer, Mitch McConnell's brother-in-law, Facilitates Russia’s Takeover of Facebook through Yuri Milner
In 2005 Jim Breyer, a partner at Accel Partners, invested $1 million of his own money into Facebook and gained a seat on the board (1).
In Feb 2009 Jim Breyer visited Russia with a number of other Silicone Valley investors. While there, Yuri Milner, a Russian tech entrepreneur who founded DST with close ties to the Kremlin, hosted a dinner to cap the entire event (2). As one Moscow source put it:
DST has the backing of the big boys at the top in the Kremlin, which is why it will go from strength to strength (5)
Milner found out Breyer liked Impressionist art and took him to Russian’s Hermitage Museum to view Matisse paintings otherwise closed off to the public. Three months later Yuri Milner’s DST invested into Facebook at a bloated value. (2)
Mr Milner dismissed suggestions that at a valuation of $10bn he overpaid for his stake in Facebook, especially given that the social networking site has yet to prove it has turned to profit. (3)
it’s seen as a desperate and rather vulgar deal on the one hand—Milner buying a small stake in Facebook, valuing the entire company at $10 billion—and, on the other, Facebook debasing itself by taking Russian money. Russian money! In fact, it seems rather like a desperate deal for both parties (in the midst of the banking crisis, Facebook has only two other bidders for this round—and none from the top VC tier) (4)
By the end of 2009, DST would own 10% of Facebook. Later revealed by the Paradise Papers, DST’s investments into Facebook were financed by the Russian government through state-owned Gazprom. That’s right, in 2009 Russia owned 10% of Facebook. (6)
Soon after, the two continued to work together on other investments. Breyer introduced Milner to Groupon, and Milner helped Breyer’s Accel invest into Spotify (7). In 2010 an Accel representative joined a gaggle of Silicon Valley investors to Russia and signed a letter promising to invest into the country (8).
http://fortune.com/2011/01/11/timeline-where-facebook-got-its-funding/
http://fortune.com/2010/10/04/facebooks-friend-in-russia/
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/7753692/Facebook-is-just-the-first-step-say-Russians.html
https://www.wired.com/2011/10/mf_milne
https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/jan/04/facebook-dst-goldman-sachs
https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/nov/05/russia-funded-facebook-twitter-investments-kushner-investor
https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/dst-global-hoping-to-grow-across-asia-puts-down-roots/
http://www.ambarclub.org/executive-education/
Jim Breyer and Rupert Murdoch
Then in Nov 2010 Jim Breyer invested into Artsy.net, run by Rupert Murdoch’s then-wife, Wendi Deng, and Russia oligarch Roman Abramovich’s then-wife, Dasha Zhukova. Jared Kushner’s brother, Josh, also invested in the fledgling company (1).
At the time Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation had a joint venture with the Russian mob-linked oligarch Boris Berezovsky, called LogoVaz News Corporation, that invested in Russian media (4). It was Berezovsky’s protege close to Putin, Roman Abramovich, who tied Berezovsky to the mob.
According to the Mirror Online, Abramovich paid Berezovsky tens, and even hundreds, of millions every year for "krysha", or mafia protection. (5)
In June 2011, Rupert Murdoch ended his foray into social media by selling Myspace to Justin Timberlake (2) and elected Jim Breyer to the board of News Corp (3).
https://www.businessinsider.com/what-is-cadre-and-how-to-invest-in-its-real-estate-deals-2016-6
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myspace
https://web.archive.org/web/19990428071733/http://www.newscorp.com:80/
https://www.bloomberg.com/profiles/companies/156126Z:RU-logovaz-news-corp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Abramovich
Jim Breyer invests in Wickr with Erik Prince
In 2012 Breyer invested in a encrypted messenger app, Wickr. Other investors include Gilman Louie and Erik Prince. To understand the connection, we need to go back to 1987. Breyer, newly hired to Accel Partners, made his first investment with Louie’s video game company that owned the rights to the Soviet Union’s first video game export, Tetris (1).
Louie went off to become the founding CEO of the CIA-backed In-Q-Tel which invested in Palantir. Palantir’s founder, Peter Thiel, sat on the board of Facebook with Breyer (2)(3). On the board of In-Q-Tel is Buzzy Krongard (7), the man who helped Erik Prince’s Blackwater receive their first CIA contract, who also joined the board of Blackwater in 2007 (6).
Around that same time, 2012-2013, Prince met Vincent Tchenguiz, founder of Cambridge Analytica's parent company, SCL (8), and was introduced to Cyrus Behbehani of Glencore, one of the purchasers of Rosneft stock detailed in the Steele Dossier (9). Cyrus Behbehani sat on the board of RusAl with Christophe Charlier, who is also Chairman of the board at Renaissance Capital (10), an early investor of DST (11).
https://wickr.com/wickr-raises-30m-series-b-led-by-jim-breye
https://www.sfgate.com/politics/article/CIA-Asks-Silicon-Valley-s-Help-Executive-to-2904775.php
https://www.iqt.org/palantir-technologies/
https://www.politico.com/story/2016/08/palantir-defense-contracts-lobbyists-226969
https://feraljundi.com/tag/reflex-responses-management-consultancy-llc/
https://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/us/17brothers.html
https://www.marketscreener.com/business-leaders/A-Krongard-006WHL-E/biography/
https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/revealed-erik-prince-had-business-ties-with-netanyahus-disgraced-chief-of-staff-1.5627887
https://medium.com/@wsiegelman/a-fresh-look-at-erik-princes-house-intelligence-committee-testimony-and-emails-with-christophe-6603f06c6568
https://medium.com/@wsiegelman/a-fresh-look-at-erik-princes-house-intelligence-committee-testimony-and-emails-with-christophe-6603f06c6568
https://www.vccircle.com/all-you-wanted-know-about-digital-sky-technologies/
Jim Breyer and Yuri Milner invest in Prismatic
That same year, 2012, Jim Breyer invested in Prismatic, a news aggregate app, with Yuri Milner.
Prismatic’s technology works by crawling Facebook, Twitter and the web (“anything with a URL”) to find news stories. It then uses machine learning to categorize them by Topic and Publication. Prismatic users follow these Topics and Publications, as well as Individuals and the algorithm then uses these preferences and user-activity signals to present a relevant Newsfeed. (1)
Sounds like the beginning of what could be a propaganda dissemination tool. That goes in-line with Yuri Milner’s vision of Social Media. Milner’s theory:
“Zuckerberg’s Law”: Every 12 to 18 months the amount of information being shared between people on the web doubles... Over time people will bypass more general websites such as Google in favor of sites built atop social networks where they can rely on friends’ opinions to figure out where to get the best fall handbag, how to change a smoke detector, or whether to vacation in Istanbul or Rome. “You will pick your network, and the network will filter everything for you,” Milner explained. (2)
So how does Milner intend to utilize the data gathered through social media? Let’s see what Milner did to Russia’s top social media site, VK:
In January 2014, Durov sold his 12 percent stake to Ivan Tavrin, the CEO of major Russian mobile operator Megafon, whose second-largest shareholder is Alisher Usmanov, one of Russia’s most powerful oligarchs, a man who has long been lobbying to take over VK.
Then, in April 2014, Durov stated he had sold his stake in the company and became a citizen of St Kitts and Nevis back in February after "coming under increasing pressure" from the Russian Federal Security Service to hand over personal details of users who were members of a VK group dedicated to the Euromaidan protest movement in Ukraine. (3)
The Euromaidan protest ousted the Russian-backed president of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, whom Paul Manafort had worked to install. (4)
https://techcrunch.com/2012/12/05/prismatic/
http://fortune.com/2010/10/04/facebooks-friend-in-russia/
https://cointelegraph.com/news/what-ban-russias-vkcom-is-mining-bitcoin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Yanukovych
Facebook talks US Elections with Russia
In Oct 2012 Zuckerberg traveled to Moscow and met Dmitry Medvedev where they had a very interesting conversation:
Mr. Zuckerberg and Mr. Medvedev talked about Facebook’s role in politics, though only jokingly in reference to its importance in the American presidential campaign, according to Mr. Medvedev’s press office. (1)
While there he also visited Victor Vekselberg's Skolkovo, who’s currently under investigation by Mueller for donations to Trump (2).
As Obama’s effort to reboot diplomatic relations [with Russia] sputtered, federal officials began raising alarms about the Skolkovo Foundation’s ties to Putin.
“The foundation may be a means for the Russian government to access our nation’s sensitive or classified research, development facilities and dual-use technologies” (3)
And took time to teach Russian's how to hack Facebook friend data, the same hack used by Cambridge Analytica, Donald Trump’s campaign data firm.
In a 2012 video, Facebook's Simon Cross shows the Moscow crowd how they can "get a ton of other information" on Facebook users and their friends. "We now have an access token, so now let's make the same request again and see what happens," Cross explains (YouTube). "We've got a little bit more data, but now we can start doing really interesting stuff. We can get my friends. We can get some more information about one of my friends. Here's Connor, who you'll meet later. Say 'hello,' Connor. He's waving. And we can also get a ton of other information as well." (4)
Facebook later hired the individual who hacked Facebook and sold the data to Cambridge Analytica (5).
A month after that visit, Putin propaganda mouth-piece Konstantin Rykov, claims he began helping with Trump’s presidential aspirations (6). Days later, Trump registered “Make America Great Again” (7). The following year, Russia's Troll Factory, the Internet Research Agency, was created as was Cambridge Analytica.
https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/02/technology/zuckerberg-meets-with-medvedev-in-key-market.html
https://www.adweek.com/digital/zuckerberg-russia-skolkovo/
https://apnews.com/5e533f93afae4a4fa5c2f7fe80ad72ac/Sanctioned-Russian-oligarch-linked-to-Cohen-has-vast-US-ties
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=heTPmGb6jdc&feature=youtu.be&t=11m54s
https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/ma18/facebook-cambridge-analytica-joseph-chancellor-gsr
https://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/11/24/a-trumprussia-confession-in-plain-sight/
https://trademarks.justia.com/857/83/make-america-great-85783371.html
Andrei Shleifer and Len Blavatnik
Len Blavatnik, a US-Russian oligarch currently under investigation by Mueller, graduated from Harvard in 1989 and quickly formed Renova-Invest with Viktor Vekselberg, another oligarch under Mueller’s investigation (7)(8). Since then Blavatnik has maintained close ties to the university.
In 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Andrei Shleifer led a consortium of Harvard professors to assist Russia’s vice-president, Antaoly Chubais, with the privatization of Russia’s state-run assets. Scandal broke when it was revealed Shleifer, through Blavatnik’s company and with Blavatnik’s guidance, invested in the very companies he worked to privatize. (6)
Years later, Shleifer continued to fund loans to Blavatnik for Russian ventures through his hedge fund, managed by his wife, Nancy Zimmerman (9), and created the Russian Recovery Fund which bought $230 million of Russian debt from Julian Robertson’s Tiger Management (10), who’s seed fun, Tiger Global, later invested in Milner’s DST.
Len Blavatnik and Viktor Vekselberg are major investors in Rusal (11).
Schleifer is still a professor at Harvard.
http://harry-lewis.blogspot.com/2014/01/some-russian-money-flows-back-to-harvard.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Blavatnik#cite_note-Yenikeyeff-7
https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/investigators-follow-flow-money-trump-wealthy-donors-russian/story?id=50100024
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/01/20/the-billionaires-playlist
https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/cafc/16-1718/16-1718-2017-03-14.html
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-25/tangled-rusal-ownership-thwarts-easy-end-to-sanctions-quicktake
Breyer and Harvard
On April 2013, two months after Breyer was elected to the board of Harvard (1), Len Blavatnik, donated $50 million to the school (2) and joined the Board of Dean’s Advisors (3)(4) and Harvard’s Global Advisory Council (6) alongside Breyer. The next month Breyer announced plans to step down from the board of Facebook with an intention of focusing on his latest Harvard appointment (5).
In 2016 Len Blavatnik donated over $7 million to GOP candidates, including $2.5 million to Mitch McConnell himself (7).
https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/02/breyer_elected/
https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/04/blavatnik_accelerator_donation/
https://www.accessindustries.com/about/academic-boards-committees/
https://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/21/delivering-alpha-2017-jim-breyer.html
https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2013/04/27/facebook-board-member-jim-breyer-stepping-down/
http://docplayer.net/54127503-Harvard-global-advisory-council.html
https://www.dallasnews.com/opinion/commentary/2017/08/03/tangled-web-connects-russian-oligarch-money-gop-campaigns
Breyer invests in Russian Companies
In 2014 Breyer’s Accel Partners invested in Russian hotel booking site, Ostrovok, along with Yuri Milner, Esther Dyson (1), Mark Pincus, and Peter Thiel (2).
Accel Partners also invested in Avito.ru in 2012 (3) and KupiVIP.ru in 2011 (4).
https://techcrunch.com/2014/06/18/ostrovok-raises-new-12m-series-c-round-to-expand-outside-russia/
http://idcee.org/participants/companies/ostrovok/
http://www.ewdn.com/2012/05/02/avito-ru-secures-75-million-investment-from-accel-partners-and-baring-vostok/
http://www.ewdn.com/2011/04/14/leading-private-shopping-club-kupivip-ru-completes-55-m-funding/
Jim Breyer, Blackstone Group, and Saudi Arabia
In 2011 Schwarzman was named to the board of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (2), headed by Kirill Dimitriev.
In June 2016, during Trump’s presidential campaign, Jim Breyer met with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin-Salman, or MBS (8). The next month Breyer joined the board of Blackstone Group (1) alongside Stephen Schwarzman and Jacob Rothschild (3). In the past Blackstone Group had loaned Kushner Companies a combined $400 million over multiple projects (7).
Jacob’s brother, Nat, is business partners with both Oleg Deripaska (4), Rupert Murdoch, and Dick Cheney (5). Nat is also a major investor in Glencore, one of the purchasers of Rosneft stock detailed in the Steele Dossier (6), and RusAl.
In January 2017, Breyer’s business partner at Wickr, Erik Prince, was introduced to Dimitriev by MBS’s emissary, George Nader, and the Crown Prince of the UAE (10).
On October 22, 2018, three weeks after the murder of Jamal Khashoggi, when most American investors were spooked away from Saudi Arabia, Jim Breyer showed up at an MBS-hosted Saudi business summit alongside Kirill Dimitriev of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (9). That same day, MBS pledged $20 billion for Blackstone Group's new infrastructure fund (11) to fund Elaine Chao's $1.5 trillion infrastructure plan (12). Elaine Chao, Mitch McConnells wife and Jim Breyer's sister-in-law, is Trump's Secretary of Transportation.
https://www.blackstone.com/media/press-releases/article/jim-breyer-to-join-blackstone-s-board-of-directors
https://rdif.ru/Eng_fullNews/53/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Rothschild,_4th_Baron_Rothschild
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/conservative/3236166/Muddy-waters-over-Oleg-Deripaska-Nat-Rothschild-and-George-Osborne.html
https://www.nationofchange.org/2017/01/15/cheney-rothschild-fox-news-murdoch-drill-oil-syria-violating-international-law/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Philip_Rothschild
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-05-26/the-kushners-the-saudis-and-blackstone-behind-the-recent-deals
https://www.thetrustedinsight.com/investment-news/saudi-prince-mohammed-met-with-20-silicon-valley-innovators-in-tech-summit-20160628142/
https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-moelis-saudi-arabia-20181023-story.html
https://www.vox.com/2018/3/7/17088908/erik-prince-trump-russia-seychelles-mueller
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-22/how-blackstone-landed-20-billion-from-saudis-for-infrastructure
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-22/how-blackstone-landed-20-billion-from-saudis-for-infrastructure
submitted by Traitor_Donald_Trump to u/Traitor_Donald_Trump [link] [comments]

Intellectual Property, Dogecoin, and You!

There have been many posts about trademarks, patents, and copyright lately, so I think it would be helpful to share with you the basic concepts I teach to my media classes.
Please know I am not a lawyer, and this post should not be considered legal advice. There are many exceptions and gray areas which I have omitted for brevity. Also this post covers U.S. laws, and while the basic principles are similar elsewhere, there are differences I am not covering here.
Edit: Thank you everyone for posting your insight and additions below. Here are a few online resources that have the information I cited:
Stanford Copyright and Fair Use Center
U.S. Trademark laws and regulations
Trademark legal information
U.S. Patent guidance
Cryptocurrency Defense Foundation
Copyright
What can be copyrighted?
Creative, artistic, and intellectual works can be copyrighted, and they must be "fixed," meaning you can't copyright an idea. Examples are music, photography, and literature. Anyone who authors a work immediately owns the copyright; registration is optional. Derivative works using licensed material also receive copyright protection for the part that is original.
How long does a copyright last?
Copyright grants the creator of a work the right to exclusive use and distribution (copying) for a limited time - the life of the author + 70 years in the US and many countries, shorter in others. A copyright owner in many cases can dedicate the work to the public domain. Then anyone can then use the work, even for commercial reasons.
What are the exceptions?
Fair use allows some copying, based on four factors including the nature of the copyrighted work, the purpose of the use, amount and significance of the portion used, and effect on the market. Fair use exceptions include some educational uses, parodies, thumbnails on websites, and news commentaries.
What does this mean for Dogecoin?
Trademark
What can be trademarked?
A sign, design, or name that specifies a product or service can be registered as a trademark. They protect consumers and businesses by preventing other from using similar marks that could create confusion in the marketplace. There are 45 classifications of goods and services; a mark can be used by only one business in each category. Surprisingly, a public domain work can be used as a trademark. However, that trademark does not grant copyright, so others would still be free to use the pubic domain work for other purposes and for businesses in other categories.
How long does a trademark last?
A trademark lasts as long as it is renewed, and protected. The act of using the trademark, more than the registration, is the source of the rights. If others start using the mark, and is not challenged by the trademark owner, then trademark protection is lost.
What are the exceptions?
Trademark is based on "first use" so if another business has used the mark, they can challenge someone who tries to trademark it. Trademarks can also not be based on generic terms. The word apple could be trademarked for a computer business, but not for a fruit business.
What does this mean for Dogecoin?
Patents
What can be patented?
Inventions which are new and non obvious can be patented. Patents in the U.S. are now mostly granted based on first inventor to file, instead of first to use, bringing the law closer to other countries. There are several types of patents including utility patents and design patents. Typically, overly broad inventions or ones that are not novel can receive patents, and are left for the courts to sort out later.
How long does a patent last?
Usually 20 years.
What are the exceptions?
Prior art. A defensive publication, where an invention is described in a dated publication but not patented, can prevent a company from receiving a patent on the same invention. A Linux organization examines every new patent application and identifies the ones that could threaten their open source project. They have filed about 200 defensive publications, a process which has become easier due to the America Invents Act.
What does this mean for Dogecoin?
submitted by dkreddt to dogecoin [link] [comments]

AlphaPoint and IdentityMind Global Partner to Provide Compliant White Label Bitcoin Exchange Solution Worldwide

Link to the press release
AlphaPoint and IdentityMind Global Partner to Provide Compliant White Label Bitcoin Exchange Solution Worldwide
AlphaPoint and IdentityMind Global partner to provide full compliance capabilities for digital currency exchanges, offering clients a complete package to rapidly launch compliant Bitcoin exchanges anywhere in the world.
Palo Alto, CA. - April 24, 2015 - AlphaPoint, the leading provider of white label technology for digital currency exchanges, and IdentityMind Global, provider of risk management and anti-money laundering solutions, have partnered to provide AlphaPoint clients with complete user verification and anti-money laundering capabilities.
AlphaPoint’s turn-key, white label solution gives customers the ability to launch their own digital currency exchanges in under 20 days, offering both a full stack software solution, as well as a liquidity service to bolster trading volumes. The partnership with IdentityMind will provide exchange owners with a crucial suite of compliance tools and technology to verify user identities, monitor transactions, prevent fraud, and comply with U.S. and international regulations.
“With AlphaPoint, clients have the technology to launch a Bitcoin exchange in days. However, exchanges must also comply with a variety of regulatory requirements to operate legally,” explained Igor Telyatnikov, VP of Operations at AlphaPoint. “Owners must have their own AML program to verify user identities, monitor transactions, and screen against sanctions lists. With IdentityMind’s platform, our customers can leverage the tools they need to comply with regulation all over the world.”
The partnership follows the successful launch of multiple joint exchanges between the two companies, with several exchanges in recent months leveraging AlphaPoint’s technology, and implementing IdentityMind’s integrated identification services to manage the regulatory requirements of operating an international money transfer service.
“We made a commitment last year to provide the Bitcoin industry with the most effective, cost efficient compliance platform available,” said Garrett Gafke, President & CEO of IdentityMind Global. “Today, we’re proud to be the leading provider of KYC and compliance technology in the industry. Support for digital currency startups has been central to our efforts, and this partnership with AlphaPoint reinforces our commitment.”
The IdentityMind platform provides users with transaction monitoring, sanctions screening, and sophisticated KYC services, including access to 16+ third party service and data providers. The platform is used by digital currency businesses across four continents, and provides users with a comprehensive toolset to reduce manual review processes. The IdentityMind IGNITE program provides digital currency startups with the platform’s full capabilities, starting at a low flat-rate fee.
About AlphaPoint
AlphaPoint is a technology company that powers digital currency exchanges and provides institutions aggregate access and order routing to digital currency markets. Its secure, scalable, and customizable platform can process nearly 1 million transactions per second, enabling customers to innovate, differentiate, and transform their businesses. As the world's leading white label exchange provider, AlphaPoint powers several of the largest Bitcoin exchanges worldwide, and is led by a seasoned team with 35+ years in financial technology. AlphaPoint has offices in New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. For more information, follow us at @AlphaPointLive or visit us at http://www.AlphaPoint.com.
About IdentityMind Global
IdentityMind Global provides risk management and regulatory compliance solutions for the ecommerce ecosystem. Their Fraud Prevention and Risk Management Platform provides financial institutions and online merchants with real-time capabilities to effectively address the operational challenges of conducting financial and payment transactions online. IdentityMind delivers integrated Fraud Prevention, Anti Money Laundering (AML), Know Your Customer (KYC), Merchant Underwriting and Transaction Monitoring. IdentityMind’s patent-pending technology Electronic DNA (eDNA™) recognizes identities based on electronic attributes and how these attributes are validated and correlated against each other. Our Platform shares eDNA™ across all our clients so they can all benefit while keeping identities and transactions private to each client. IdentityMind Global services clients worldwide including Banks, Money Service Business, Payment Service Providers, Virtual Currency Exchanges and Trading Platforms, and Online Merchants. For more information, visit us at http://www.identitymindglobal.com, or follow us on twitter: @identitymind.
© 2015 IdentityMind Global. All rights reserved. IdentityMind, IdentityMind Platform, IdentityMind eDNA, IDMPay and the IdentityMind logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of IdentityMind Global, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All other brand, service or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or owners.
IdentityMind Global™ is privately held. For more information please refer to http://www.identitymindglobal.com, or reach us at info(at)identitymind(dot)com.
submitted by AlphaPoint to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

[FOR HIRE] Animated title for your video or website, extremely low fee

This is an offer of 2-3 hours of intermediate-level After Effects work. Maybe you need a good-looking title to insert at the beginning of your video, or an animated GIF or Flash video for your blog/website.
I'm not doing this to make a lot of money. You would pay 0.005 BTC, around USD$0.50 at current rates, if you don't like the result or whatever you want more than that. Basically, I'm trying to build a portfolio (no reel at the moment), and I want to be able to say I've done this kind of work for bitcoins. I'm actually pretty good at this, but I don't want to promise more than I can deliver with no more than three hours of work.
This offer isn't limited to just titles. Maybe you need a lower third, a logo, or a cool-looking slideshow. Just be specific and realistic. I'm reasonable, though. If you need something more complex or longer, I'm open to that, but to start out I would like to complete this short project with you.
submitted by grimplanet to Jobs4Bitcoins [link] [comments]

[Table] IAmA: We are iFixit co-founder Kyle Wiens and cell phone unlocking crusader Sina Khanifar, two guys fighting for your right to unlock everything you own

Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet)
Date: 2013-03-22
Link to submission (Has self-text)
Link to my post
Questions Answers
Is it possible for an 83 year old to have a well-reasoned attitude towards the internet, or are all people that old hopelessly analog and therefore irrelevant I would hope so! But I imagine it would take some time—there's a lot of context he's missing that we have, and vice versa. I'm sure that there's a lot that I could learn from Mr. Billington. Maybe I should drop by his library sometime and see if he'll show me around!
Why should I tailor my design to the .1% of the market who cares about repairing their design, instead of the 50% of the market who would rather have an extra 1mm shaved off the case, or who would rather save $.50 due to a more efficient factory assembly methodology? Just because the first owner doesn't fix it, doesn't mean no one will. Eventually, 100% of the products you design will fail. The battery will wear out or someone will drop it. The need for repair is just about as inevitable as taxes. Products that have long lives have much higher resale value. Toyota trucks sell for a significant premium over Ford trucks of the same year with the same mileage. And people care about how much they're going to be able to get for their used product a year down the line, even if they're not interested in ever fixing it themselves. Large purchasers are increasingly paying attention to design lifespan. I know purchasers at very large organizations that are horrified by the prospect of a glued in battery with a 2-3 year life. They have to get a better return on their investment than that.
Hey! I wrote a repair guide for a Fender guitar amp for you guys for my technical writing class at Cal Poly SLO! My question is what sort of compromise could you foresee that would both allow use consumers to do what we wish with our products, while still protecting the intellectual property of the numerous companies we purchase our products from? For those who are interested, here's their Fender repair manual. Great job!
The question is what intellectual property needs to be protected? There are already lots of laws that protect Fender from you starting a competitor and using their patented designs or trademarked logo and case styling.
In the case of electronics, all the design engineers I know tell me that by the time a product has shipped, they assume that it's obsolete. They know their competitors will be taking it apart and analyzing it.
Sharing information needed for repairs doesn't really make it any easier to clone a product. A number of manufacturers—Dell and HP, for example—provide service manuals on their website already. And iFixit's Apple service manuals didn't prevent (or factor in at all with) their lawsuit against Samsung.
My opinion is that the laws we have are substantially the result of a) unintended consequences of the fight against media piracy; b) Cell carriers using the law to enforce a monopoly; and c) a strategy of planned obsolescence.
Now that's it's illegal; what are the chances of getting caught? Is it easy for phone providers to track down an unlocked cell phone? Will they actively go after people? Or do you think it's going to be more like illegal torrenting where they'll go after the big fish (ie people marketing unlocking/jailbreaking services) and maybe cherry pick a few unlockers here and there to make an example out of them? The odds of them coming after you or me are very low. I'm not sure that they could detect remotely whether a phone has been unlocked—it would probably come down to how accurate their database is and whether there is data sharing between the carriers.
It's the folks making the unlocking software—like geohot and the iPhone dev team—as well as refurbishers and resellers. Companies like Recellular unlock millions of cell phones per year. If they can't do that, the used phone market will be significantly disrupted. It will become extremely expensive to buy unlocked phones, and your old locked phone won't be worth nearly as much.
It's crazy that intellectual property law is interfering with the free market of physical products like this. It's farcical. Imagine if Ford cut a deal with a toll road company and didn't allow you to drive your car on another company's roads!
We need to find ways of educating policy makers about the impact of applying policies designed to prevent piracy to physical hardware.
How do you think the rise of 3D printing is going to affect your iFixit business? Do you believe scanning the 3D models of little plastic pieces be subject to DMCA takedowns? And if so, would you consider addressing that on your fixthedmca.org site? I'm really excited about 3D printing. We haven't seen a ton of practical 3D printable repair parts, but that day is coming.
The legal issues around printing 3D parts are pretty different from the copyright concerns around unlocking (circumventing encryption) and access to service manuals and diagnostics. With printing objects, you run into problems with 3D patents and trademarks. If it's legal for a third party to make a replacement handle for your refrigerator, it should be legal for you to 3D print one. But that's by no means certain, and I think it's going to be a significant fight in the coming years.
There have already been some DMCA takedowns of 3D files, but IANAL and I couldn't say exactly what the implications are.
A major challenge for small companies like ours is uncertainty. Let's say I create a 3D file of my door handle, post it to iFixit, get sued by a major manufacturer, and my lawyers tell me I have a strong legal case for fair use. Going to trial could cost millions of dollars—money the manufacturer may be willing to spend, but that we wouldn't be able to afford.
This is a big reason why you don't see very many people standing up to the OEMs. It's also why it's critical that we financially support fantastic organizations like the EFF, Public Knowledge, Free Press, and others who are willing to fight long fights on behalf of us consumers. Free markets need clarity.
That said, iFixit is totally happy to host any 3D models of spare parts people want to throw up on our servers, as long as the files were independently created.
As a Cal Poly SLO Electrical Engineering student who built a 3d printer this summer, I support IFixit hosting models. Let's get started uploading some models, then!
Everything that you guys take apart and breakdown.. do you pay for those out-of-pocket, or are they given to you by the manufacturers? How do they feel about you doing that? Great question. We buy everything at retail, just like Consumer Reports. Since we're rating the repairability, it's important that we get the same hardware that you would buy at the store.
That gets a little expensive, particularly with out-of-contract cell phones (we'll be taking apart the Blackberry Z10 soon), but it's worth it. You can't tell how hard it'll be to repair something without taking it apart, and we've taken it on as our sworn duty to educate people before they find out the hard way.
We posted a tablet repairability matrix the other day.
Well, I feel like that is likely ALREADY the case with many cars. They all have lots and lots of chips in them. How many of those chips are we allowed to access, inspect, etc., without violating something like DMCA? It totally depends on whether they're encrypted.
Legally, can you modify the code on the chips?
Practically, will anyone do it?
Right now, we're focused on the first issue—guaranteeing your right to tinker. That's why we need to repeal Section 1201 of the DMCA.
But for repairs, the time to reverse engineer those chips is so significant that you would never be able to do so in the process of fixing a car. For many repairs, access to service documentation and diagnostics are critical. That's why Massachusetts just passed Right to Repair legislation requiring service information be made available. Independent auto mechanics were worried they wouldn't be able to stay in business.
I think we need Right to Repair legislation for electronics as well as autos.
You guys are great! A Maker Manifesto for all! I'm tired of the consumption based, throwaway society we have today. We need to get corporations to relinquish this tight-fisted control over everything they manufacture for "sale" (quotes to indicate that they say "sold", even though the consumer often own much of what was purchased) that encourages, no - demands, that merchandise gets thrown away and replaced new to maximize profits. What do you see as the best avenue, personally and as citizens, to encourage people, the government, and companies to pursue the ability to repair our merchandise? Help us build a free repair manual for everything! Join the thousands of people all around the world contributing to make iFixit the largest repair manual in the world. We're building a coalition to fight for access to unlocking tools, service manuals, diagnostics, and everything else we need to repair products. If the people of Massachusetts can stand up for their local auto repair shop, we of the internet can certainly stand up for the right to open our electronics.
Sign up at fixthedmca.org and let people know you want DMCA 1201 repealed.
I own a small business that's an authorized dealer of a major carrier's products and contracts. When I order, e.g., a 16 GB iPhone 5, I pay the full retail price, $650. One of my stores then sells it for $200, as per the carrier's requirement. When someone then proceeds to unlock that phone and activate it on, say, Cricket, I lose $450. The carrier only pays me a portion of the contract if it's kept for at least six months. Were you aware of this? Do you agree that anyone who acts in a similar manner is effectively stealing $450 from me? How can one own an item that he hasn't fully paid for yet (assuming that a device isn't entirely bought until the discount received on it has been compensated via contract)? The customer has to pay an early termination fee, I assume. Who gets that money?
Do you ever break a item while disassembling it? e.g. If you cracked a Ipad digitizer as you removed it while doing a break down. Edit:spelling. Yes. Specifically with the iPad, it was glued together. It took us breaking about five iPads before we developed a technique for opening iPads without harming the glass. Even then, we kept fiddling and improving our methodology.
How do you guys feel about "anti-fixer" hardware like security screws or Torx? I don't really think Torx is anti-fixer—it's a pretty standard tool, there are good technical reasons for it (screws don't strip as easily), and the patent on it has expired (way back in '91). Security bits and tools like Apple's Pentalobe driver are just consumer-hostile.
I had to open up my coffee maker to unclog it and they had flathead screws with a little bar in the middle - you'd need a flathead screwdriver that kinda looked like a two-pronged fork. I have a friend who just spilled liquid on her MacBook Air this afternoon and needs to open up the case to dry it out. But she doesn't have the right sized pentalobe bit already, and it's going to take a few days to mail her one.
Random idea: Mail Pentalobe drivers to libraries in major metro areas, so people can locally access them without the hassle? There's a growing group of tool libraries where they do just that. I think it's a fantastic idea—we recently wrote a story about the West Seattle Tool Library, which is very successful.
You guys are awesome! You helped me start my business in fixing and unlocking devices. I have already emailed my representatives (all of them), signed the petition, and spread the word about how bad the DMCA is. Thank you for your efforts. As for questions, how many DMCA threats do you receive? If so, from what kind of companies? Do they concern you at all? You'll be surprised to hear this: iFixit has never received a DMCA complaint. But there's a good reason for that—all the content on the site is originally created, either by us or by our community members.
We haven't gotten permission from any OEMs to rehost their service information (yet), but it's something that we're working on.
With the recent screenshots of xbox durango, do you think that we are moving toward a time where the used game market will cease to exist? You bought it, you should own it. That applies to music you buy from iTunes, or from Steam, or from the secret XBox market of the future.
But the trend right now is away from ownership, and towards licensing. Apple is very careful to never say that you own the music you download from iTunes.
There's a fantastic group of people working to guarantee your rights to resell the things you buy called the Owner's Rights Initiative. They won a huge victory in the Supreme Court this week in the Kirtsaeng v. Wiley case, verifying that it is legal to resell products in the US that were made overseas. Seems commonsense, but those are the sort of basic battles we have to fight.
If that verdict had gone the other way, we might be talking about whether it's legal to resell your old cell phone—now that would have been a step backwards.
Are you giving away free 6inch rulers? because they are $2.99 and redditlove322 gives $5 off. Yes.
Why isn't the problem the breaking of a contract? The customer is not actually breaking the contract, they're exercising an option in the contract to end the monthly service in exchange for paying an early termination fee.
Your problem is that the carrier wrote the contract, and likely also wrote the business contract with you. Your contract sounds one-sided—the fair thing would be for you to receive a portion of the termination fee to repay you for your subsidy. You're getting squeezed on both ends.
Why isn't there a way to sort the amount of devices on your website by their repairability score? Because we haven't gotten to it yet! But that's a great idea. Our tablet repairability page is our first stab at something like that.
I have used your website to repair a Macbook Pro. I redirect people to your site for a lot of their Apple (and console) problems. I love the idea of a centralized repository of all this knowledge. Is it possible to expand this to cover all devices? If unlocking under contract cell phones is legal. What incentive do mobile carriers have to incentivize high end cell phones? Yes, we're working hard to do it. The problem is that we can't take the manufacturer service manuals and post them on iFixit because of copyright law. If it was legal, we'd have service manuals for everything! So we have to write everything from scratch. You can help—take some photos the next time you fix something and post the seed of a new repair manual. Locking phones isn't required to keep you on a carrier. You already have a contract! The early termination fee should cover any costs to them from your subsidized handset.
What's in it for you? We want to fix the world. I'd like to live in a place where people cared about their things, and products were designed to stand the test of time.
I agree that this should never be an issue and shouldn't be something that we should have to fight for. Everything should be unlocked by default. But you guys are doing amazing things in this fight, so mad props to you. The problem is that software (intellectual property) is infecting hardware, and so the laws that have allowed us to modify and tinker our hardware for hundreds of years are woefully out of date. It won't be long before you can't buy any durable good that doesn't have some software involved.
, ifixit.com is an awesome idea and site and I recently used it to upgrade my aging macbook, saving hundreds of dollars by not buying a new one. Great idea! What do you. think. of. these. guides?
Have you ever considered expanding ifixit beyond apple products and game consoles? Or expansion beyond electronics.. say into DIY car repairs? IFixit is a wiki, and you can add repair manuals for anything you like! So get cracking.
Hi there as a small cellphone and computer shop in my town I like to thank you guys for your work and I support as much as I can when I can ( buying parts and tools. Even if can find it little cheaper somewhere Els. I to support your amazing website ). It helped me many times when I have a rare or unusual item in my shop. How did it all started ? Here's a short summary of how we started iFixit back in 2003: Link to www.ifixit.com
Are there any ways that manufacturers are making it easier to repair devices? I think Dell deserves more press than they've gotten for the XPS 10. It's clear that serviceability was a design priority throughout, and it's a great device. I have the trackpad + battery dock, and it's a great product.
They color coded the screws, used easy tabs to get into the case, and made the battery very easy to remove.
Did you guys sell your tool kit to Best Buy, I saw a similar kit in geek squad to what I have at home? Not yet, although we'd love to sell tools through them. You can buy them from Amazon online as well as direct from us. Radio Shack is selling our tools at a few stores—if you don't see them in your local store, ask them to stock them!
Hi guys, love your site 'cus I'm a fixer. _^ I've rebuilt many an engine for myself and friends. The best way for a friend to get me to fix their stuff is to say : "It's OK, don't worry. I'll just get a new one." LOL That pushes my buttons and I'll have it fixed pronto! I'm wondering about the (maybe few) positive outcomes of regulation. I'd love to hear your take on modifications to devices that then negatively effect other people. I know many guys who modify the emission control system on their cars in order to get better mileage or have better pick-up. This gives all of us a worse environment. Sometimes people misalign their headlights and/or put in super-bright halogens. These blind me when approaching at night. Also, what if someone modified their electronics in such a way that throws off a ton of RF noise, thus disrupting the electronics of others (phone, Bluetooth, WiFi). Mufflers on motorcycles that are just TOO loud are another example. These issues are more troublesome in cities where we live close to each other. This would probably require many more "spot checks" by authorities to be sure that your device/caboat/etc was in compliance. They do this now for people who mod their street-legal cars, but they will typically just target the low-riders or the Asian imports that are altered. I'd hate if this practice was extended to the whole population. We would creep closer toward a police state. So what is your stance on regulation (and its enforcement) for beneficial things? Where do we draw the line and how do we be sure people comply? This is a great question, and I'd like to have a conversation about this separately. Please ask our repair tech community over on meta.ifixit.com and see what they think. They might have a more nuanced perspective on this than I would.
What has been the most difficult project for you? Not standing up to the DMCA, or any kind of campaigning stuff - I'm asking about phones/consoles/etc. The hardest part for us is figuring out how to make servicing glued devices economical. The solution involves new tools, techniques, and instructions. We've thrown away entire repair manuals and started from scratch because we thought the procedure was too difficult for people to use. Our iOpener is a really cool new tool for opening glued tablets, and took about a year of tinkering to perfect.
Would you please give us a bitcoin address where we can PAY OUR SUPPORT ?? We should set something up for fixthedmca.org. We could be the first bitcoin-funded PAC! I'm sure that would ruffle some feathers.
Is the Surface Pro really that bad? Yes. But don't take my word for it—CNET / Techrepublic also took it apart, and came to the same conclusions that we did.
From their report: "[Microsoft] took one of worst tablet design elements (a glued on front panel) and married it with one of the worst laptop elements (an over abundance of screws) to create a device that’s more difficult to crack open than even the Apple iPad."
Just wanted to say Thanks for making such great tools. They guides are pretty awesome too, but the tools are sweet. Just got my Magnetic Project Mat and I love it. Any way you want to sponsor an IT guy and give me a bunch of tools? Keep up the great work! Shameless plug: I love my Pro Tech Toolkit, and the Magnetic Project Mat has changed how I fix things.
Unrelated, but would love the question answered. GF would love to move back to SLO. Any chance I could get a job? We do have a couple positions open in SLO.
Not really a question directed to you, but just on the topic in general. In the US, are you not allowed to unlock your phone? Here in Ireland we simply go to our network's shop, give them our phone and a day later, it's unlocked and ready to use on any network, free of charge. It's newly illegal as of January of this year. Thanks, Mr. Librarian of Congress!
In some countries—including Brazil—it's illegal to sell locked cell phones. I guess we're a little less secure in our capitalism than they are.
I can't thank your site enough! I use it to fix all of my electronics and customers computers. Before i even open a device, I take a look at your site and check to see what cables I have to be aware of, so I don't break any when taking apart the thing. Have you thought about opening a physical location and selling your merchandise and maybe offer computer servicing? We have thousands of technicians who contribute to iFixit and run local repair businesses. I'd never want to compete with them—they're a lot better at fixing things than I am!
Do you have the stats from that old satisfaction survey on peoples favorite star wars film? Yes, I've got that around somewhere. I'll have rummage around the dusty regions of my drive platters for them. I'm pretty sure Jar Jar lost.
You guys stole a friend of mine's photo of an Xserve without attribution (it was CC just requiring credit). He emailed you about it several times with no response. What fuck? I don't know anything about that! Have him send it again to support at ifixit and we'll get right on it. iFixit is community driven, so it could have been a contributor. But we're eager to fix it!
Hey Kyle, I know it's not the reason you're here, but are you going to do a teardown of the new 27" iMac? We've got a repair manual well underway. Stay tuned.
Love the website and love the prices, but when will you have more of these in stock? Probably not soon. Best to find a water damaged one somewhere and salvage the part.
An IMEI blacklist has now been released by checkesnfree, but no database to check purchase date of phones to confirm the 1/26/13 cutoff. As a repair shop how am I supposed to know when a customer bought a phone, or whether they are lying to illegally unlock a phone? Is it really fair for us to have them sign a waiver to pass the blame off to the customer in case of a lawsuit? Good question, and I have absolutely no idea.
> Is it really fair?
Nope. But then, who said the law was supposed to be fair?
What are your opinions on E-waste? We've written extensively about e-waste (see the Wired articles I linked to above, as well as iFixit.org). It's a huge problem, and the best solution is to make our products last as long as possible.
Locking phones limits their ability to be reused, and the practice is responsible for hundreds of millions of phones going out of use prematurely. Locking hurts resale prices, it hurts consumers, and it hurts the environment.
Well If I can buy a car and make mods to it or buy a computer and mod it. I see no reason why I shouldn't be able to mod a phone or anything else. Good Luck guys! Thanks. The issue is software infecting the hardware world. If they put an encrypted interface to your car, it would be illegal to unencrypt it and modify it, thanks to section 1201 of the DMCA. That's gotta change.
The post-'96, pre-late-2000s cars hit the sweet spot: they had OBD II ports, but were devoid of crazy electronic nannies and gremlins. My DD is a '98 Accord, and that's almost as good as it gets. +1.
My 68-year-old mother replaced the battery in her MacBook Air by herself a couple of days ago thanks to you guys. You rock! Awesome! Got any photos?
We collect repair stories over here.
MJ is the best host you have had on iFixit. Hands down. Thanks! Here's MJ's take on the cell phone unlocking situation.
Just last Friday I used your website to fix my Galaxy Nexus (grandfathered in to unlimited data) with nothing more than eye glasses screwdrivers and some guitar picks. Thank you for saving me from a 5fb download limit or having to pay $600 for an unlocked phone. You guys rock! Link to cdn.memegenerator.net
If youre asking, you already know the answer. Shhh.
Just wanted to say thanks for the wealth of information you provide. When I taught my ACMT course in Las Vegas I recommended your site over Apples GSX for out of warranty repairs. Used it myself frequently and will continue to even though I'm no longer a technician. Thanks! And please, help us get better. There's an edit button on every step and we need all the people with technical expertise we can get.
Hey, I did work for you guys through my college class (ENGL 149 at Cal Poly SLO) and because of my work I actually got a job! I just wanted to say thank you very much <3. Here's the page I worked on: Link to www.ifixit.com. I'm the hand model <3. Awesome! What job did you get?
Hey guys! its Caleb from hackaday. I just wanted to say you've come a LONG way over the years and I'm happy to use you as a resource when people ask me about gadget repairs. Keep going! Thanks, Caleb. The community deserves the credit—they're the ones who have expanded our manuals so dramatically. I'm constantly amazed at the cool repair how-tos I find on the site.
I just want to tell you that I love your website and that you have saved me hundreds of dollars in repair costs for my Apple products via ifixit.com. Thanks! I paid patalbwil to say that.
Just wanted to say 'thanks' for everything you guys have done and are continuing to do. I started a Mac repair business over three years ago and I couldn't have done it without all of the amazing guides on iFixit.com. Keep up the good work! Awesome, that's great to hear. We love helping people start businesses.
Pass it along—teach someone how to fix something over on iFixit.
Probably too late, just wanted to say thanks for ifixit. I've bought a few tools there, fixed my xbox controller, and I'm in the process of fixing my ps3 laser. You're very welcome! I'm not responsible for most of that—it's our global community that wrote those guides. It's incredible how much knowledgable people are willing to share.
I met iFixIt at Bay Area Maker Faire in 2011 and 2012 and want to thank you for who you are and for all you do to make a DIY-er's life easier. Let me know if you need a spare pair of booth hands for 2013. I don't think we'll be exhibiting this year so we can focus on our online work, but we're happy to support anyone who wants to represent repair at the faire. It's a great show.
As a fellow Calpoly CPE, how well would you say that Calpoly prepared you for the 'real world'? (Also, will you ever go beer tasting with Collin?) Our work is pretty broad—we're taking apart hardware one day, hacking code the next, and writing op-eds for Wired the next. So it was very useful, but we've had to teach ourselves a fair amount along the way.
So they can turn a profit, yo. All the products for those tear-downs don't come cheap. Plus you get a high quality screen + get great customer support. There's a pretty broad spectrum in quality between parts out there. We test every single screen we sell and stand behind our parts with long warranties.
Last updated: 2013-03-27 06:27 UTC
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What is Bitcoin? (v2) - YouTube

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