Lost and hodled - understanding Bitcoin’s 'Unspent ...

Bitcoin [BTC] proponent Andreas Antonopoulos elucidates on Unspent Transaction Outputs [UTXO] - AMBCrypto News

Bitcoin [BTC] proponent Andreas Antonopoulos elucidates on Unspent Transaction Outputs [UTXO] - AMBCrypto News submitted by ulros to fbitcoin [link] [comments]

[Question] I use Bitcoin Core. Is it poor practice to create a new receiving address to receive all unspent funds from another address (in the same wallet) that is associated with a transaction?

I understand that if a bitcoin address is used to send funds, then its public key is disclosed and it is best practice to zero it out. Short of creating a new wallet, I am thinking about creating a new receiving address in the same bitcoin core wallet and send the unspent bitcoin to the new address.
Is this good practice, or am I doing something really silly?
From a privacy perspective, I get that idealy you want an address to receive exactly once, and send exactly once to minimize the ability of analysis to connect the dots between 'businesses' and 'customers'.
From a security perspective, I believe, an address' public key is only exposed when it is used to send. It can receive limitlessly and its public key is not exposed.
submitted by mrtest001 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Simple phone wallet needed. No new change addresses used. Retension of unspent coins in original paper wallet. /r/Bitcoin

Simple phone wallet needed. No new change addresses used. Retension of unspent coins in original paper wallet. /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

[Question] I use Bitcoin Core. Is it poor practice to create a new receiving address to receive all unspent funds from another address (in the same wallet) that is associated with a transaction? /r/Bitcoin

[Question] I use Bitcoin Core. Is it poor practice to create a new receiving address to receive all unspent funds from another address (in the same wallet) that is associated with a transaction? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Price increase drives 98% of Bitcoin holders into a state of profit.

Price increase drives 98% of Bitcoin holders into a state of profit.
by Mickael Mosse
The price of bitcoin jumped significantly on Wednesday after the payment processor Paypal announced cryptocurrency support. The jump in value has pushed a large number of bitcoin holders into a state of profit, according to Glassnode “percent of UTXOs in profit” statistics. Based on the current data, 98% of all bitcoin UTXOs are in a state of profit touching levels previously recorded three years ago in December 2017.
The price of bitcoin (BTC) closed at a high at $13,184 per coin on Wednesday, October 21 following the announcement from Paypal. During the evening trading sessions, the onchain research and analysis firm Glassnode tweeted about the number of bitcoin unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) in profit. A UTXO refers to the amount of bitcoin someone holds that has not been spent and is simply stored in a bitcoin wallet.
“98% of all bitcoin UTXOs are currently in a state of profit,” Glassnode tweeted. “A level not seen since Dec 2017, and typical in previous BTC bull markets.”

https://preview.redd.it/1dtqk311dvu51.png?width=1450&format=png&auto=webp&s=67b10a88f9891ade45f459dcf03fc70bad23b5c9
Since then the price has dropped a hair but the price of bitcoin (BTC) is still up 4.3% over the last seven days. Long term holders have seen a 72.4% increase during the last 12 months, 34.9% during the last 90-days and 22% against the 30-day span. Glassnode’s onchain stats report, details that the subindex measuring investor “sentiment” increased ending the week “at 70 points.”
A number of crypto analysts and traders believe that bitcoin’s current price range is a key indicator for moving forward. Moreover, BTC’s dominance level, it’s market cap measured against all 7,000+ crypto assets, has risen to 63.2%. The senior financial analyst at Fxpro, Alex Kuptsikevich, believes bitcoin is testing crucial macro levels.
“At current levels, Bitcoin is testing cyclical highs,” Kuptsikevich wrote in a note to investors. “Since the beginning of 2018, it has not been able to gain a foothold at levels above $12,000. It is equally important that at new highs, indicators like the RSI are far from the overbought condition, indicating significant potential for further growth. Closing the week above $12,800 would be the highest level in two and a half years, opening a direct path of growth to the historic highs of $20,000 that we saw three years ago.”
Kuptsikevich added:
Bitcoin breaking through two round levels of $12k and $13k opens doors for further growth. The current price dynamics led the coin to re-test the peak of july 2019, which at that time was the highest point of the rally. Nowadays, purchases take place against the background of confidence that bitcoin has more and more supporters in the traditional financial world.
Eric Demuth, cofounder and CEO of Bitpanda believes that cryptocurrencies, in general, started to “establish themselves as a trusted asset class of the worldwide financial market such as gold and stocks.” Demuth thinks that the Paypal support announced on Wednesday is just the start, as he believes more large players will be joining the crypto party.
“2020 has shown that crypto is here to stay,” Demuth explained. “There has been a huge inflow of institutional capital as well as record numbers of new retail customers adopting cryptocurrencies. I am certain we will see more big players like Paypal joining the party in 2021.”
Read the article here:https://mickaelmosse.com/price-increase-drives-98-of-bitcoin-holders-into-a-state-of-profit/
And don't miss out on any bitcoin news, daily on the mickaelmosse.com app.
submitted by williamsouza10 to u/williamsouza10 [link] [comments]

Ledger Live adds Coin control: Here's why that matters.

Ledger Live adds Coin control: Here's why that matters.
Ledger Live version 2.11.1 (download link) adds Coin control for power users.
The coin control feature gives advanced users more granular control over their wallets. It enables them to change how and which coins are selected when making transactions. This increases their ability to manage their privacy and the network fees they will have to pay to spend their account balance.
More control over your coins

How does it work?

The account balance for Bitcoin and its derivatives consists of all the unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) in the account. You can think of UTXOs as the coins in a regular wallet. When you receive money, you collect coins in your wallet. Then, when you want to make a payment, you get to choose which coins you pick from your wallet. Do you pick the largest coins first? Or do you want to spend all the smaller value coins to lighten up your wallet? Similar considerations can be made when creating a Bitcoin or Bitcoin derivative (altcoin) transaction.
Before the Coin Control feature was released, all transactions involving Bitcoin (and altcoins) automatically selected their coins using the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) algorithm. This strategy includes the oldest coin in the account, and when the amount is not sufficient the second-oldest coin is added, and so forth.
As of Ledger Live version 2.11.1, users are able to make use of a dedicated Coin Control tool to choose the coin selection strategy and the coins that may be spent.

Using Coin control in Ledger Live

Coin control is available in Advanced options in the Send flow
  1. Click on Send, choose an account to debit, and enter a recipient address. Click on Continue.
  2. Enter an amount and click on Advanced options. You will then see: - The currently selected, default coin selection strategy: Oldest coins first (FIFO). - A toggle to enable Replace-By-Fee (RBF). - A toggle to include coins from unconfirmed, replaceable transactions.
  3. Click on Coin control. The coin control modal opens.
  4. Select a Coin selection strategy from the dropdown menu: - Oldest coins first (FIFO). This is the default strategy that spends the oldest coins first. - Minimize fees (optimize size). This strategy tries to minimize the byte size of the transaction by spending the lowest number of UTXOs. This results in a low network fee. - Minimize future fees (merge coins), This strategy includes the maximum number of inputs so that a potential future price rise does not make smaller UTXOs economically unspendable. If the price of a crypto asset increases too much, small UTXOs may become worth less than the cost of the network fees to spend them.
  5. Select which coins may not be included in the selection by unticking their checkbox. The SELECTED indicator shows which coins will be included in the transaction. By changing the selection strategy and/or coins to include, the user has precise control over which coins end up being spent. The Coins to spend and Change to return indicators show how much is spent from and returned to the account.
  6. Click on Done to return to the Send flow to verify and send the transaction.
The coin control window lets you select the strategy as well as pick the coins. Coins marked SELECTED will be included in the transaction.

Coin status

The following statuses can be displayed for a coin:
  • Coins received in a transaction with 0 confirmations without RBF enabled: PENDING
  • Coins received in a transaction with 0 confirmations with RBF enabled: REPLACEABLE
  • Coins received in a transaction with 1337 confirmations: 1337 CONFIRMATIONS
By enabling the toggle Include coins from unconfirmed, replaceable transactions, replaceable transactions can be selected in the Coin control screen.

The Privacy use case

One of the main use cases for Coin control is to protect one’s privacy. UTXOs are, unfortunately, not perfectly fungible due to their unique history on the blockchain. Therefore, users may want to spend coins from different sources without mixing them together, because this would indicate to an outside observer of the blockchain that these addresses belong to the same account. For instance, if one were to spend coins bought on a KYC exchange, which are associated with the user’s identity, together with coins bought anonymously using cash, the anonymous coins could be linked to the user’s identity.
Another example would be that you would like to prevent spending a high-value coin for smaller purchases because this would unnecessarily show the person you’re paying how much you have. This is similar to not showing the boulanger how much is on your bank account when buying a baguette.

Let us know what you think!

We are excited to release this new feature because we think it will fulfill real needs of an important part of our users. This version of Ledger Live marks an important milestone, but we will continue working on more features that our community wants.
So, we invite you to try out Coin control in Ledger Live and let us know what you think! All feedback is welcome on this thread, on ledgerwallet, and you can send suggestions or get help through our official contact form.
We'd like to close out by underlining our commitment to the Bitcoin community, and our willingness to build the best wallet ecosystem for newbies as well as for power users.
submitted by fabnormal to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin bull cycle gaining steam: Whale cluster at $13K is now a support zone

According to on-chain data from the analysts at Whalemap, $13,000 has become a support level for the price of Bitcoin (BTC). Whale clusters indicate that whales — or large BTC holders — are continuously accumulating. Whale clusters form when a large number of BTC are transferred to a new address and the BTC is unspent. […]
submitted by FuzzyOneAdmin to fuzzyone [link] [comments]

Defi Coins List In Detail

A Detail List Of Defi Coin

Lending

Trading

Payments

Wallets

Interfaces

Infrastructure

Analytics

Education

Podcasts

Newsletters

Communities

submitted by jakkkmotivator to Latest_Defi_News [link] [comments]

Litecoin MimbleWimble July Update.

With the crypto markets finally breaking out above the 3 year downtrend, confidence is returning to the space and to cryptocurrency as a technology. With that said, we have also taken another leap towards the launch of MimbleWimble on the Litecoin Network, so let’s jump into what’s new and without further ado let David Burkett, the projects lead developer share his progress: The focus this month was on the Initial Block Download. Before I can detail the progress made, I need to give some background info for those not intimately familiar with mimblewimble. The biggest innovation behind mimblewimble is that, in order to verify the chain, you just need to know all of the unspent coins/outputs, and a small part of each transaction called the “Kernel.” These 2 things together are called the “chain state.” In bitcoin/litecoin, each block header uses a merkle tree to commit to only the transactions in that block. Since we don’t want to require everyone to download all old mimblewimble blocks, or to know about all old, spent outputs, we use a different structure to commit to the transactions. Each mimblewimble header commits to the root of 2 different Merkle Mountain Ranges(MMRs). One represents all historical kernels up to that block, and the other represents all historical outputs/coins. Merkle Mountain Ranges are a different sort of tree that supports “pruning”, which means we can verify the root of the structure without knowing all of its members (called leaves). For an in-depth look at how this works, I recommend reading
submitted by Jefferywachmanq to litecoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain.com support hack attempt

TL;DR: Wrote blockchain.com support on an issue, got a fraudulent email from blockchainexchange.vip asking for my 12 word seed.
Today I was trying to send some bitcoin out of my blockchain app, and I got a notice saying I had too many unspent transactions, so the fee was going to be higher. I read that moving all funds to a new wallet will solve this, but when I attempted to do so, only half of my balance was available to be spent, which is very strange, since I have no pending transactions.
So I went to blockchain.com support site, and wrote an email asking for a solution. I got an email a couple hours later from [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), but when I looked closer, it was actually [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) . That raised some suspicions. When looking at the support ticket, it was a completely different number.
What came after is even worse. David from support goes on to write that I the wallet out of sync with their database, causing balances not to show correctly.
He goes on to instruct me to backup my wallet, and asks me to send the 12 word seed, and once I did that, my wallet would be synchronized again.
What I don't understand is how this is possible? I was on their site, looked for answers on Wallet consolidation, and clicked on submit a request.
And I still dont have an answer on why my spendable value is less than half of my wallet value
submitted by macacovelho to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

with the recent rgb smart contracts news above lightning is there a 'possibility' to smart contract with yourself to cold storage in lightning form?

i mean with the 'possibility' to cold storage for like 20 yrs or something 'safely'
https://rgb-org.github.io/
its says:
RGB uses blockchain as a state commitment layer and Bitcoin script as an ownership control system; while smart contract evolution is defined by off-chain schema and Turing-complete scripting system using Simplicity language
and
As a security mechanism RGB uses single-use seals defined over bitcoin transaction outputs, which provides ability for any party having smart contract state history to verify it’s uniquiness. In other words, RGB leverages Bitcoin script for its security model and definition of the ownership and access rights.
and
Each RGB smart contract is represented by some genesis state, created by smart contract issuer (or, put simply, issuer) and a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of state transitions kept in form of client-validated data (i.e. this data is not stored on blockchain or within LN transactions/channel state). The state is assigned to unspent bitcoin transaction outputs, which defines them as single-use seals. The party that is able to spend corresponding transaction output is named a party owning state: it is a party that has the right to change the corresponding part of the smart contract state by creating a new state transition and committing to it in a transaction spending the output containing previous state. This procedure represents closing of a seal over state transition, and a pair of spending transaction and corresponding extra-transaction data on the state transition are named witness.
submitted by undadatunda to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ledger live not showing correct BTC amount

I transferred all my bitcoin to my ledger nano s in September 2019. I checked ledger live a few months later and the balance was correct. This was on computer #1 Computer #1 graphic card has broken and thus I have had to use my second computer. I checked ledger live yesterday on computer #2 and my btc balance was 0. Ledger live doesnt show any transactions after jan 2018. Which is about the time I got my new computer (#2) I have followed all the troubleshooting steps including updated both the firmware on my ledger and updating ledger live and Clearing cache. I have searched both tx id for each transfer and know that the BTC hasnt been stolen as the status is "unspent". How do I go about getting the correct balance to show up. Do I have to get computer #1 up and running. Or is a reset of my ledger necessary. I hope to solve it without a reset. Or am I better off buying a new ledger and setting that up with the 24 word security for my current ledger.
submitted by papadoc321 to ledgerwallet [link] [comments]

I found a $600k BCH theft that has gone unnoticed

Hello all, I'm (among other things) a graduate student getting a master's degree in cybersecurity. This last quarter for one of my classes, I was tasked to examine and recreate an exploit. For the actual exploit I was examining the "anyone can spend" segwit addresses on the BCH chain, and in my research I found a $600k theft that seems to have gone completely unnoticed.
You all might recall this $600k theft of segwit addresses, but it happened again in mid-February 2018 and there has been zero news about it.
BCH block 517171 contains solely segwit-stealing transactions. If you look at any given transaction, the inputs are all segwit program hashes spending a P2SH segwit output. I only caught it by accident, as I was originally going to talk about the publicized November attack.
The interesting thing I discovered about this was that it's harder to have stolen that segwit money than most people think. Both Unlimited and ABC nodes do not relay segwit-spending transactions, and Bitcoin ABC hard-coded in fRequireStandard, so you couldn't even force-relay them with a conf option. On top of that, miners keep their node IPs private for obvious avoiding-ddos-and-sybil-attack reasons, which means it's impossible to directly send transactions to miners. This means that the only way to actually execute this attack was to setup one's own mining pool running on a custom-modified client to allow non-standard transactions. Then you'd have to get enough hash power to mine a block yourself. I estimated the cost of renting enough hash power to do this at the time as around $30k-$60k to have a greater than 90% chance of mining a block within a 3 month window.
In order to simulate the attack, I spun up BTC, LTC, and BCH nodes in Docker, and wrote a Python script. The Python script started at segwit activation on BTC and LTC and it scanned every transaction in every block looking for P2SH segwit inputs as well as native segwit outputs, since these are the necessary hash pre-images to spend P2SH segwit money on the BCH chain. The script then also scanned the BCH chain for any native segwit outputs, as well as recording all P2SH outputs. (This was all saved in a MySQL database.) Then, at any point in time, I could simply query for BCH unspent native segwit outputs as well as P2SH outputs for which I had a known segwit hash pre-image. (If this was an attack I was doing real-time, I would probably also have a large mempool on each node and monitor unconfirmed tx's for useful info as well, but since this was after the fact, I just queried blocks sequentially.)
For the mining node that runs the pool, it would need to be firewalled behind (i.e. only connected to) an unmodified node in blocks-only mode, so that the segwit hash pre-images aren't transmitted out to the network, and so that no other unconfirmed transactions are transmitted in to the mining node. (The mining node should only be filling its block with segwit tx's in order to maximize the gain from the attack.)
Then a script should run continuously to grab segwit utxos from the MySQL database and construct high-fee transactions to send directly to the mining node. Unlike the November attack, each input should be spent in its own individual transaction, so that in the event it is individually spent, I don't negate a tx with other inputs. The overhead on having different transactions for each input is only about 8 extra bytes (the tx version and the locktime), so I think this is a good trade-off.
Then, the attacker simply rents hashing power and points it at his secret pool.
By the time February rolled around and the attack happened, my MySQL database had about 40 million BCH P2SH outputs and each query took about 3 minutes to execute. This of course would have been fine in the 10-minute block world of Bitcoin and BCH, but it means that I stopped my Python script after that time, so I don't know about any possible other attacks that happened before the clean stack rule was hard-forked into BCH.
It was pretty interesting to work through how this attack must have happened, and it was significantly harder to execute than I thought it would be given that all the money was "anyone can spend".
However, the most interesting thing about all this is that nobody has noticed. There is literally no news or mention of block 517171 or any of the transactions in it. My theory is that it is money that nobody misses -- i.e. misprogrammed custom wallet software for BTC nodes accidentally also sent out BCH transactions to the same address, given that BTC and BCH shared the same history until August 2017. And whatever person or entity is running those nodes is only thinking about BTC money and is completely oblivious to its misprogrammed problem of shipping BCH to segwit P2SH addresses.
Obviously, that's just a theory, but I think it's pretty reasonable. Given the intense community divide, I think it's very possible that a number of BTC users simply ignored money on the BCH chain, even though it's "free money" for them, simply out of ideological hatred.
Whatever the case, nobody has posted anywhere complaining of money stolen in that block. It seems to have gone completely unnoticed. (Which is why I'm posting this.) It was an interesting case study and I'd be curious to hear if anybody has any addition information or thoughts about it. I believe this was a different person than the November theft, because the way it was done was different -- the November theft had all the money in one transaction, but this February theft was done with separate individual transactions. Additionally worth noting is that the address which received the bulk of the money is still active, which means they're still out there.
Anyway, I thought this was interesting and worth posting.
submitted by exmachinalibertas to btc [link] [comments]

New beginner-friendly fundamental report on QTUM.

New beginner-friendly fundamental report on QTUM.
The report was just released today. Source: https://cryptoeq.io/coreReports/qtum-abridged ➔
It’s a fundamental report that can be shared with people new to investing in QTUM. It runs through all the basics and discusses some of the pros, cons and risks.

https://preview.redd.it/dzfr5g45gjx41.png?width=432&format=png&auto=webp&s=fe3c298bdddf221c299fc1c2bbc95ab4e8655208
Overview
Qtum (pronounced “quantum”) is a Singapore-based open-source, public blockchain platform launched in 2017 that leverages the security and simplicity of Bitcoin’s UTXO protocol with the composability and flexibility of Ethereum smart contracts. Qtum integrates an Ethereum-esque Virtual Machine (VM) with open-source Bitcoin Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) code through a proprietary layer known as Account Abstraction Layer (AAL).
QTUM Strengths
  • Compatibility with Bitcoin and Ethereum code allowing Qtum to leverage other project’s innovation and work.
  • Active project development dating back to 2015.
  • One of the first-to-market Proof of Stake v3 projects with competitive staking ROI (~4.5%).
  • High node count compared to other altcoins.
QTUM Weaknesses
  • Qtum faces immense competitor risk, little usedApp adoption, and potential project apathy illustrated by low staking participation (~20%).
  • Poor token distribution to the masses (51% of supply) and heavy token allocation to team, foundation, and development (49%) resulting in extreme wealth concentration among the top 10 addresses.
  • Co-founder Patrick Dai denied his involvement with another controversial cryptocurrency project (before being confronted with overwhelming evidence to the contrary) where he used an alias and allegedly profited in bitcoin.
  • PoS security remains less mature and understood than PoW. Qtum suffered one PoS vulnerability (“fake stake” attack) already in January 2019 which has since been fixed.
submitted by schism1 to Qtum [link] [comments]

Guide: Crypto.com MCO Visa Card: 10% cashback on groceries + 1-5% on other purchases + $50 bonus

Crypto.com is now finally shipping their MCO Visa cards in UK & EU in addition to the US! I have received my card this week and immediately got 10% cashback when trying it at Lidl: https://imgur.com/a/ITB39JX
I'm very enthousiastic about Crypto.com myself and all the products they offer. I'll try to explain here as clearly as I can.
I would appreciate it if you'd sign up through my link: https://platinum.crypto.com/sxzbhwuqje or use code sxzbhwuqje in the app. You will also be eligible for the $50 bonus then (see below).

What is Crypto.com?

Crypto.com offers an app with which you can easily buy and sell cryptocurrencies without additional cost. The company exists since 2016 (back then under the name Monaco, hence the MCO abbreviation) and now they have 2 million users.
Next to trading within the app you can also get interest on your cryptocurrencies up to 12% (complete overview here), similar to the likes of Celsius and BlockFi.

The MCO Visa card

Through their app Crypto.com also offers the MCO Visa card. This is a Visa card tied to the MCO cryptocurrency. There are 5 different card tiers and you get:
All cashbacks and bonuses are paid in the MCO cryptocurrency. You can immediately sell the MCO in the app for pounds/euros, which you can use again for purchases with the card if you want.
To get one of the non-free card tiers you need to buy MCO coin and stake them, which means holding on to them for 6 months. After the 6 months you can sell them again at the then current rate. The price of MCO is currently around €5,00 / $5,45, meaning that you have to lock €250 / $273 for six months to get the Ruby Steel card. You'll earn this back in about 7 months (see below),
These are the lower three card tiers:
Card Tier Midnight Blue Ruby Steel Jade Green/Royal Indigo
Stake (hold) None (free card) 50 MCO (~ €250 / $273) 500 MCO (~ €2500 / $2730)
Bonus after staking None $50 (in MCO) $50 (in MCO)
Cashback % 1% 2% 3%
Monthly Spotify Rebate No Yes Yes
Monthly Netflix Rebate No No Yes
LoungeKey Airport Lounge Access No No Yes
Metal card No Yes Yes

Calculation example payback time (7 months)

Below I've made an example calculation for the payback time of the Ruby Steel card, assuming a spend of €1000 / $1100 monthly with the card and that you use Spotify. After 7 months you will have earned back your initial investment :)
But, additionally you also have the 10% cashback on groceries until the end of June plus the worth of your MCO coins that you locked for 6 months. Even if they would be worth only half of what they are worth today, you'd still have a value of €125 / $137 (see below about price expectation).
Value
$50 bonus immediately after staking €46 / $50
2% cashback on all purchases with the card (assuming montly spend of €1000 / $1100 during 7 months) €140 / $154
Spotify rebate ($10 / €10 per month) €70 / $70
Total €256 / $274

MCO price

The price of the MCO coin has been around €5,00 / $5,45 for a while. The cards have just been released for UK and EU. Because especially in EU cashback cards are not common, I expect that lots of people would be interested in getting a cashback card like this one. The good thing about that is that the demand for MCO coin would increase (because people need to lock them for 6 months) and I expect that the price of MCO will rise then (there are only 16 million of them, less than Bitcoins).
No guarantees, this is my personal opinion :) I advise you to think about it yourself.

Notes

submitted by blxyy to CryptoCurrencyCards [link] [comments]

Technical question about a bitcoin transaction

Hey guys. so ... i was wondering ... imagine this scenario
we have 5 parties ; A , B , C , D and E
each have a different bitcoin address, and their own corresponding private keys, and each account has one UTXO
a transaction is created, spending all the 5 UTXOs and moving the coins to 5 different addresses ( each party controls one of the new addresses .... like a coinjoin, if you will)
all 5 parties have to sign the transaction for it to be valid. If one party refuses to sign, the transaction is not valid and will be rejected because it is missing a signature, right ?
now my question is, Can the party that refused to sign, alter the transaction in a way that his utxo remains unspent, but the transaction becomes valid ? in other words, can he misuse other parties' signatures to get some coins in his new address without spending his own UTXO ?
I'm sorry if its not clear enough. English is not my first language.
Thank you for your help !
submitted by Frednn to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Lite full nodes

Ergo allows any user to run a full node with low resources – meaning you can help maintain the network with a device as simple as a Raspberry Pi.
In a previous post, we looked at Ergo’s SPV mode, which allows for secure, efficient mobile clients. This enables users to make transactions using almost any device.
At the other end of the scale, you might want to run a full node. If you’re a miner, this will require that you download the full blockchain, because you’ll need the whole UTXO (unspent outputs) set to mine new blocks. But you can still run a full node without that UTXO set – vastly reducing the specification and expense of the hardware needed.
Ergo blocks
In Ergo, just like Bitcoin, Ethereum and other blockchains, blocks are broken into sections. In Bitcoin, there’s simply a block header and the transactions themselves. But in Ergo, we have some extra sections that enable new functionality:
The ‘extension’ section contains certain mandatory fields (including links for NiPoPoW, once per 1,024 block epoch) and parameters for miner voting, such as current block size. It can also contain arbitrary fields.
What this means in practice is that different types of node and client can download only those sections of the blocks they need – reducing the demands for storage, bandwidth and CPU cycles.
Lite full nodes
While miners need to download everything, lite full nodes only need the transactions and proofs. This means they have a cryptographic guarantee of transactions, without holding the full UTXO set itself.
Lite full nodes check the proofs generated by full nodes (including miners) who do hold the full blockchain, providing a guarantee of ledger validity. In Ethereum, these nodes are called Stateless Clients.
For Ergo, it means you can run a full node and maintain the network with a device as simple as a Raspberry Pi with 512 MB RAM. This provides the ideal balance between ensuring the security of the network and placing an unnecessary burden on users who wish to do so – improving decentralisation and democratising participation in the Ergo network and community.
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Ergoplatform.org
submitted by kushti to ergoplatformorg [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

https://preview.redd.it/s2gmpmeze3151.png?width=256&format=png&auto=webp&s=9759910dd3c4a15b83f55b827d1899fb2fdd3de1

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
https://preview.redd.it/t1j6anf8f3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=33bd141d8f2136a6f32739c8cdc7aae2e04cbc47

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

Crypto.com MCO Visa Card: 10% cashback on groceries, 1-5% on other purchases + $50 bonus

Crypto.com is now finally shipping their MCO Visa cards in UK & EU in addition to the US! I have received my card this week and immediately got 10% cashback when trying it at Lidl: https://imgur.com/a/ITB39JX
I'm very enthousiastic about Crypto.com myself and all the products they offer. I'll try to explain here as clearly as I can.
I would appreciate it if you'd sign up through my link: https://platinum.crypto.com/sxzbhwuqje or use code sxzbhwuqje in the app. You will also be eligible for the $50 bonus then (see below).

What is Crypto.com?

Crypto.com offers an app with which you can easily buy and sell cryptocurrencies without additional cost. The company exists since 2016 (back then under the name Monaco, hence the MCO abbreviation) and now they have 2 million users.
Next to trading within the app you can also get interest on your cryptocurrencies up to 12% (complete overview here), similar to the likes of Celsius and BlockFi.

The MCO Visa card

Through their app Crypto.com also offers the MCO Visa card. This is a Visa card tied to the MCO cryptocurrency. There are 5 different card tiers and you get:
All cashbacks and bonuses are paid in the MCO cryptocurrency. You can immediately sell the MCO in the app for pounds/euros, which you can use again for purchases with the card if you want.
To get one of the non-free card tiers you need to buy MCO coin and stake them, which means holding on to them for 6 months. After the 6 months you can sell them again at the then current rate. The price of MCO is currently around €5,00 / $5,45, meaning that you have to lock €250 / $273 for six months to get the Ruby Steel card. You'll earn this back in about 7 months (see below),
These are the lower three card tiers:
Card Tier Midnight Blue Ruby Steel Jade Green/Royal Indigo
Stake (hold) None (free card) 50 MCO (~ €250 / $273) 500 MCO (~ €2500 / $2730)
Bonus after staking None $50 (in MCO) $50 (in MCO)
Cashback % 1% 2% 3%
Monthly Spotify Rebate No Yes Yes
Monthly Netflix Rebate No No Yes
LoungeKey Airport Lounge Access No No Yes
Metal card No Yes Yes

Calculation example payback time (7 months)

Below I've made an example calculation for the payback time of the Ruby Steel card, assuming a spend of €1000 / $1100 monthly with the card and that you use Spotify. After 7 months you will have earned back your initial investment :)
But, additionally you also have the 10% cashback on groceries until the end of June plus the worth of your MCO coins that you locked for 6 months. Even if they would be worth only half of what they are worth today, you'd still have a value of €125 / $137 (see below about price expectation).
Value
$50 bonus immediately after staking €46 / $50
2% cashback on all purchases with the card (assuming montly spend of €1000 / $1100 during 7 months) €140 / $154
Spotify rebate ($10 / €10 per month) €70 / $70
Total €256 / $274

MCO price

The price of the MCO coin has been around €5,00 / $5,45 for a while. The cards have just been released for UK and EU. Because especially in EU cashback cards are not common, I expect that lots of people would be interested in getting a cashback card like this one. The good thing about that is that the demand for MCO coin would increase (because people need to lock them for 6 months) and I expect that the price of MCO will rise then (there are only 16 million of them, less than Bitcoins).
No guarantees, this is my personal opinion :) I advise you to think about it yourself.

Notes

submitted by blxyy to referralcodeshub [link] [comments]

Crypto.com MCO Visa Card: 10% cashback on groceries, 1-5% on other purchases + $50 bonus

Crypto.com is now finally shipping their MCO Visa cards in UK & EU in addition to the US! I have received my card this week and immediately got 10% cashback when trying it at Lidl: https://imgur.com/a/ITB39JX
I'm very enthousiastic about Crypto.com myself and all the products they offer. I'll try to explain here as clearly as I can.
I would appreciate it if you'd sign up through my link: https://platinum.crypto.com/sxzbhwuqje or use code sxzbhwuqje in the app. You will also be eligible for the $50 bonus then (see below).

What is Crypto.com?

Crypto.com offers an app with which you can easily buy and sell cryptocurrencies without additional cost. The company exists since 2016 (back then under the name Monaco, hence the MCO abbreviation) and now they have 2 million users.
Next to trading within the app you can also get interest on your cryptocurrencies up to 12% (complete overview here), similar to the likes of Celsius and BlockFi.

The MCO Visa card

Through their app Crypto.com also offers the MCO Visa card. This is a Visa card tied to the MCO cryptocurrency. There are 5 different card tiers and you get:
All cashbacks and bonuses are paid in the MCO cryptocurrency. You can immediately sell the MCO in the app for pounds/euros, which you can use again for purchases with the card if you want.
To get one of the non-free card tiers you need to buy MCO coin and stake them, which means holding on to them for 6 months. After the 6 months you can sell them again at the then current rate. The price of MCO is currently around €5,00 / $5,45, meaning that you have to lock €250 / $273 for six months to get the Ruby Steel card. You'll earn this back in about 7 months (see below),
These are the lower three card tiers:
Card Tier Midnight Blue Ruby Steel Jade Green/Royal Indigo
Stake (hold) None (free card) 50 MCO (~ €250 / $273) 500 MCO (~ €2500 / $2730)
Bonus after staking None $50 (in MCO) $50 (in MCO)
Cashback % 1% 2% 3%
Monthly Spotify Rebate No Yes Yes
Monthly Netflix Rebate No No Yes
LoungeKey Airport Lounge Access No No Yes
Metal card No Yes Yes

Calculation example payback time (7 months)

Below I've made an example calculation for the payback time of the Ruby Steel card, assuming a spend of €1000 / $1100 monthly with the card and that you use Spotify. After 7 months you will have earned back your initial investment :)
But, additionally you also have the 10% cashback on groceries until the end of June plus the worth of your MCO coins that you locked for 6 months. Even if they would be worth only half of what they are worth today, you'd still have a value of €125 / $137 (see below about price expectation).
Value
$50 bonus immediately after staking €46 / $50
2% cashback on all purchases with the card (assuming montly spend of €1000 / $1100 during 7 months) €140 / $154
Spotify rebate ($10 / €10 per month) €70 / $70
Total €256 / $274

MCO price

The price of the MCO coin has been around €5,00 / $5,45 for a while. The cards have just been released for UK and EU. Because especially in EU cashback cards are not common, I expect that lots of people would be interested in getting a cashback card like this one. The good thing about that is that the demand for MCO coin would increase (because people need to lock them for 6 months) and I expect that the price of MCO will rise then (there are only 16 million of them, less than Bitcoins).
No guarantees, this is my personal opinion :) I advise you to think about it yourself.

Notes

submitted by blxyy to promocodes [link] [comments]

Crypto.com MCO Visa Card: 10% cashback on groceries, 1-5% on other purchases + $50 bonus

Crypto.com is now finally shipping their MCO Visa cards in UK & EU in addition to the US! I have received my card this week and immediately got 10% cashback when trying it at Lidl: https://imgur.com/a/ITB39JX
I'm very enthousiastic about Crypto.com myself and all the products they offer. I'll try to explain here as clearly as I can.
I would appreciate it if you'd sign up through my link: https://platinum.crypto.com/sxzbhwuqje or use code sxzbhwuqje in the app. You will also be eligible for the $50 bonus then (see below).

What is Crypto.com?

Crypto.com offers an app with which you can easily buy and sell cryptocurrencies without additional cost. The company exists since 2016 (back then under the name Monaco, hence the MCO abbreviation) and now they have 2 million users.
Next to trading within the app you can also get interest on your cryptocurrencies up to 12% (complete overview here), similar to the likes of Celsius and BlockFi.

The MCO Visa card

Through their app Crypto.com also offers the MCO Visa card. This is a Visa card tied to the MCO cryptocurrency. There are 5 different card tiers and you get:
All cashbacks and bonuses are paid in the MCO cryptocurrency. You can immediately sell the MCO in the app for pounds/euros, which you can use again for purchases with the card if you want.
To get one of the non-free card tiers you need to buy MCO coin and stake them, which means holding on to them for 6 months. After the 6 months you can sell them again at the then current rate. The price of MCO is currently around €5,00 / $5,45, meaning that you have to lock €250 / $273 for six months to get the Ruby Steel card. You'll earn this back in about 7 months (see below),
These are the lower three card tiers:
Card Tier Midnight Blue Ruby Steel Jade Green/Royal Indigo
Stake (hold) None (free card) 50 MCO (~ €250 / $273) 500 MCO (~ €2500 / $2730)
Bonus after staking None $50 (in MCO) $50 (in MCO)
Cashback % 1% 2% 3%
Monthly Spotify Rebate No Yes Yes
Monthly Netflix Rebate No No Yes
LoungeKey Airport Lounge Access No No Yes
Metal card No Yes Yes

Calculation example payback time (7 months)

Below I've made an example calculation for the payback time of the Ruby Steel card, assuming a spend of €1000 / $1100 monthly with the card and that you use Spotify. After 7 months you will have earned back your initial investment :)
But, additionally you also have the 10% cashback on groceries until the end of June plus the worth of your MCO coins that you locked for 6 months. Even if they would be worth only half of what they are worth today, you'd still have a value of €125 / $137 (see below about price expectation).
Value
$50 bonus immediately after staking €46 / $50
2% cashback on all purchases with the card (assuming montly spend of €1000 / $1100 during 7 months) €140 / $154
Spotify rebate ($10 / €10 per month) €70 / $70
Total €256 / $274

MCO price

The price of the MCO coin has been around €5,00 / $5,45 for a while. The cards have just been released for UK and EU. Because especially in EU cashback cards are not common, I expect that lots of people would be interested in getting a cashback card like this one. The good thing about that is that the demand for MCO coin would increase (because people need to lock them for 6 months) and I expect that the price of MCO will rise then (there are only 16 million of them, less than Bitcoins).
No guarantees, this is my personal opinion :) I advise you to think about it yourself.

Notes

submitted by blxyy to Referral [link] [comments]

Crypto.com MCO Visa Card: 10% cashback on groceries, 1-5% on other purchases + $50 bonus

Crypto.com is now finally shipping their MCO Visa cards in UK & EU in addition to the US! I have received my card this week and immediately got 10% cashback when trying it at Lidl: https://imgur.com/a/ITB39JX
I'm very enthousiastic about Crypto.com myself and all the products they offer. I'll try to explain here as clearly as I can.
I would appreciate it if you'd sign up through my link: https://platinum.crypto.com/sxzbhwuqje or use code sxzbhwuqje in the app. You will also be eligible for the $50 bonus then (see below).

What is Crypto.com?

Crypto.com offers an app with which you can easily buy and sell cryptocurrencies without additional cost. The company exists since 2016 (back then under the name Monaco, hence the MCO abbreviation) and now they have 2 million users.
Next to trading within the app you can also get interest on your cryptocurrencies up to 12% (complete overview here), similar to the likes of Celsius and BlockFi.

The MCO Visa card

Through their app Crypto.com also offers the MCO Visa card. This is a Visa card tied to the MCO cryptocurrency. There are 5 different card tiers and you get:
All cashbacks and bonuses are paid in the MCO cryptocurrency. You can immediately sell the MCO in the app for pounds/euros, which you can use again for purchases with the card if you want.
To get one of the non-free card tiers you need to buy MCO coin and stake them, which means holding on to them for 6 months. After the 6 months you can sell them again at the then current rate. The price of MCO is currently around €5,00 / $5,45, meaning that you have to lock €250 / $273 for six months to get the Ruby Steel card. You'll earn this back in about 7 months (see below),
These are the lower three card tiers:
Card Tier Midnight Blue Ruby Steel Jade Green/Royal Indigo
Stake (hold) None (free card) 50 MCO (~ €250 / $273) 500 MCO (~ €2500 / $2730)
Bonus after staking None $50 (in MCO) $50 (in MCO)
Cashback % 1% 2% 3%
Monthly Spotify Rebate No Yes Yes
Monthly Netflix Rebate No No Yes
LoungeKey Airport Lounge Access No No Yes
Metal card No Yes Yes

Calculation example payback time (7 months)

Below I've made an example calculation for the payback time of the Ruby Steel card, assuming a spend of €1000 / $1100 monthly with the card and that you use Spotify. After 7 months you will have earned back your initial investment :)
But, additionally you also have the 10% cashback on groceries until the end of June plus the worth of your MCO coins that you locked for 6 months. Even if they would be worth only half of what they are worth today, you'd still have a value of €125 / $137 (see below about price expectation).
Value
$50 bonus immediately after staking €46 / $50
2% cashback on all purchases with the card (assuming montly spend of €1000 / $1100 during 7 months) €140 / $154
Spotify rebate ($10 / €10 per month) €70 / $70
Total €256 / $274

MCO price

The price of the MCO coin has been around €5,00 / $5,45 for a while. The cards have just been released for UK and EU. Because especially in EU cashback cards are not common, I expect that lots of people would be interested in getting a cashback card like this one. The good thing about that is that the demand for MCO coin would increase (because people need to lock them for 6 months) and I expect that the price of MCO will rise then (there are only 16 million of them, less than Bitcoins).
No guarantees, this is my personal opinion :) I advise you to think about it yourself.

Notes

submitted by blxyy to MakeMoneyOnlineGuide [link] [comments]

What does unspent mean on Blockchain? - YouTube Download Bitcoin From Blockchain Unspent and Unconfirmed ... Hack Bitcoin From Blockchain Unspent and Unconfirmed ... Download Bitcoin From Blockchain Unspent and Unconfirmed ...

When news.Bitcoin.com reported on the 100 BTC bar peel, it was the largest month between now and then for redemptions with 172 coins peeled. In mid-March 54 coins were redeemed and so far only 14 Casascius coins have been peeled in July. Of course, the biggest month in a long while was December 2017, when the public witnessed 1,172 redeemed Casascius coins. As 560 Casascius coins worth $5.1 ... Bitcoin News. Home; News. News. Number Of Bitcoin Whales Shatters Record Highs Following Recent Price Rally… News. Crypto Market Forecast: W/C 26th October 2020. News. Glassnode Claims That 98% of Unspent Bitcoin Could Sell for A… News. User Transferred $1.15 Billion (0.4% Of Total Bitcoins) Transferred for $3.6… News. Bitcoin Will 10X Compared to Gold, Says JP Morgan. Blockchain ... When news.Bitcoin.com reported on the 100 BTC bar peel, it was the largest month between now and then for redemptions with 172 coins peeled. In mid-March 54 coins were redeemed and so far only 14 ... Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) is a core component of using Bitcoin as a payment method. Here’s a low-level technical introduction for the casual user. Unspent is simple enough for newcomers, and powerful enough for serious investors. Create an account, connect your exchanges and wallets, and let Unspent crunch numbers and handle the rest. Your portfolio will always be up to date, with helpful insights about your assets, trades, risk profile, market analysis, activity on open finance services, and more.

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What does unspent mean on Blockchain? - YouTube

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